Chemistry I Chapter 4 Part 2
Chemistry I Chapter 4 Part 2 CH 1213
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katerina Kushla on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CH 1213 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Eric Van Dornshuld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Chapter 4 - Oxidation Week 6 9/22/16 Chapter 4: Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions Part 2: Oxidation and Activity Series Oxidation-Reduction Reactions a.k.a. “Redox Reactions” – a reaction involving a change in oxidation number for one or more reactant elements 2Na(s) + Cl (2) 2NaCl(s) Half Reaction – an equation that shows whether each reactant gains or loses electrons 2Na(s) 2Na + 2e + - Cl (g) + 2e 2Cl (s) - 2 Oxidation and Reduction Terminology Oxidation – “loss of electrons” Oxidized – the process of losing electrons Reduction – “gain of electrons” Reduced – the process of gaining electrons OIL RIG – “Oxidation Is Losing, Reduction Is Gaining” Oxidizing Agent – Species that is reduced (because it oxidizes something else) Reducing Agent – Species that is oxidized (because it reduces something else) * Like a travel agent, the don’t travel, they help someone else to travel Critical Info: for something to undergo oxidation, something else must undergo reduction (and vice-versa) Chapter 4 - Oxidation Week 6 9/22/16 Oxidation Numbers Oxidation Number a.k.a Oxidation State – the charge each atom of an element would have in a compound if the compound were ionic MEMORIZATION 3 – Oxidation Numbers 1. The oxidation number of an atom in an elemental substance is zero 2. The oxidation number of a monatomic ion is equal to the ion’s charge 3. Rules higher in the table overrule those lower in the table 4. The sum of oxidation numbers for all atoms in a molecule or polyatomic ion equals the charge on the whole species Chapter 4 - Oxidation Week 6 9/22/16 Activity Series IMPORTANT TIP: In this type of equation, the solid metal reactant will always be the one undergoing oxidation, therefore, the dissolved metal would have to undergo reduction Zn(s) + CuCl (a2) ZnCl (aq) +2Cu(s) In this equation, Zinc was oxidized and Copper was oxidized The reverse reaction however, would not occur. Cu(s) + ZnCl (a2) CuCl (aq) + 2n(s) We know this by referencing the activity series chart. * This chart does not have to be memorized, it will be provided on the exam The activity series is a list of metals (and hydrogen) arranged from bottom to top in order of increasing ease of oxidation So, if given a choice between Gold or Lithium being oxidized, Lithium would oxidize An element in the series will be oxidized by the ions of any element that appears below it Elements will not be oxidized by elements that appear above it. Chapter 4 - Oxidation Week 6 9/22/16 An element can be both oxidized and reduced. This is called a Disproportionation Reaction. Oxidized 2H O2 2H O + O 2 2 Reduced WE DO NOT HAVE TO DO “BALANCING REDOX REACTIONS.” THIS WILL NOT BE ON THE EXAM OR FINAL. YAY! 1
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