HIST 3045, Week 4 Notes
HIST 3045, Week 4 Notes HIST 3045
Popular in International History of the Cold War
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Jok on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3045 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Paul Pitman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see International History of the Cold War in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
International History of the Cold War Extending the Definition of the Cold War Important events: Truman Doctrine '47 OEEC '48 Cominform '47 Prague coup '48 Berlin blockade '48-'49 NAT '49 - article 5 NSC -68 - approved (9/50) EDC Paris Accords Extending the definition of the cold war: • up until 1948 the core of the cold war conflict is centered in Europe (not military so much as political and diplomatic) and is thus not world wide. • By 1950 it is world wide. • By 1950 did someone in your home town think about the cold war? How much of a reality was it at the time? • Perhaps we are too used to the later stages of the cold war? 1947: • Eastern Europe, communist forces reject non-communist parties from coalition governments • The events that catches the attention in the west is the Feb. 1948 Czech coup o Czech republic was the only country that had a functioning liberal-democratic government during the war. o The west mourned when the Czech government was overthrown. • Spring 1947 (Marshall Plan) o Telling other governments they are less likely to get aid if they have communist leaders in their leadership • Turns into a crusade o Truman Doctrine • Must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures. o Cominform • First official forum of the international communist movement since the dissolution of the comintern. • Set up by the soviet union • Doctrine of 2 camps • The point: before there is a military standoff, there were ideological standoffs. In this political conflict where the states are whether country A or B will change its government, what's a good strategy to pursue? • Typically called containment [Kennan policy]: Main policy of the United States o Economic containment • Build up the economic and political power of allies of the US in order to block Soviet influence. • Economic hardship and distress is seen as the main enemy • Playing to the greatest strength of the United States. • The rest of world trade is greatly disrupted by the war • Marshall Plan § Aid program to revive the European economies. • Goal: Free trade and convertible currencies § What does this mean for the US in 39 - 44 • 30's: World Trade had broken down as a result of the Great Depression • Zones: • Sterling Zone: 50% of world trade • Dollar Zone • Francs • Ruble Zone Yen Zone • • US Develops ideas of IMF, convertible currencies, ITO -> GATT -> WTO, etc. • CEEC: Committee on European Economic cooperation § Europeans didn't want to cooperate. § Americans make it a condition that there is cooperation • OEEC • Organization for European Economic Cooperation. • Giving money and loaning money • Had to export to give back • Us has to lower tariffs and run a balance of payments deficit. • Radical change to global markets come with these conditions. o Military containment • 5 centers of industrial power in the world that could launch a major industrial War [Kennan] o USA o UK o Germany o Japan o Soviet Union • In 1947 4/5 of these are aligned with the United States, (but there is economic hardship and uncertainty). • This is a time where the military balance is extremely unstable, and in American eyes the soviets look like they still have the power to wreak havoc. • At the time, Kennan's views weren't widely accepted. • At this time o The British have disarmed o The Germans aren't allowed to have an army o The French have moved all of their well trained soldiers to Indochina o Ergo: the central front in Western Europe from the Western viewpoint was very thinly protected. Why stress this? • Revise the Revisionist view of US Foreign Policy in the Cold war • Multilateral trade within Europe. • U.S. Military can destroy Soviet industrial locations • 1958 Strategy: NSC • Economy will grow when jobs open up. NSC 68 • Call for western countries to increase spending and arms. • USA Occurs significant military aid • Marshall Plan • [ERP] The Korean War Notable: 38th Parallel: August '45 • 1945 DPRK: Kim il-Sung • North Korea ROK: Syngman Rhee • South Korea • Had previously spent 30 years in the United States Port Arthur Sino-Soviet Friendship Treaty • Between China and Russia • Mutual defense and assistance. Senator Joseph McCarthy • McCarthyism EDC: 1950 - 52 • European Defense Community • Concerned about Stalin and involved in the Korean War Paris Accords: Oct '54 MC-48: Dec '54 • NATO document plan to defend Western Europe. • We'll fight for a while, if things look bad, we'll nuke them (Early use of Nuclear Weapons) • Use of tactical nuclear weapons Possible Questions: (midterm) • One question will cover the period up to 1963. The questions will be broad. • How did the world wars affect the attitudes of the Cold War Generation? • Could the Cold war have been prevented or ended? • Who was to blame for the Cold War and why? • To what extent could you blame the use of the Nuclear bomb by the United States for the development for the cold war? • How did NSC '68 affect western European defense Posture? Today: The Korean War Begins • 4am June 25 1950, north Korean forces north of the 38th Parallel started to bombard South Korean forces in the western most part of South Korea. • In retrospect there were a fair number of intel reports that there might be an attack • The North moved up their attack for fear that it had been leaked. • The South was taken completely by surprise. • The North was much better equipped and better armed and better technologically prepared (2 to 1 and fresh out of the Chinese Civil War) o South Korean army fairly new because it was coming out of occupation by Japan. • 28 June: Capital of South Korea fell • The North had predicted that the South would fall in 3 days due to a communist uprising. • In the meantime, the United States organizes a response. o 4pm Eastern Standard time in D.C. all of this is taking place o Issues brought to the UNSC the next day in New York (2pm) o 6pm there was a UNSC resolution declaring a breach in the peace and calling that N. Korea withdraws troops • The Soviets weren’t present at this meeting because they were protesting the UN approval of China as a permanent member of the UNSC o 2nd resolution: members of the UN furnish assistance to south Korea to restore order • 2 days later Truman orders U.S. forces into S. Korea and positions the Navy between China and Taiwan. o In the end: the US peaks at about 300,000 and China sends in over 1 million. • The Draft was called • The reserves were called • The war is still not over • 1953 Armistice which is still in effect and the US still has troops in S. Korea • Threat of Nuclear Conflict given N. Korean actions o & active development of missiles • During the war the Soviets were involved (clandestine) o Sent troops dressed in Chinese uniforms to fly Soviet Air Planes o First US-Soviet Dog Fights. • US Fighter Doctrine • Winter of 1950 the local offensive skirmish has become a major war pitting the U.S. against the Chinese (East vs. West) • Immediately after the war and during all of 1950 there's a wave of fear throughout the west that the attack in Korea is the first stage in the larger offensive that would be followed by an attack in the West from Germany. o Increase in military presence in Europe • "A precursor to world war three" o However it was almost entirely limited to the borders of N/S Korea o Repercussions were global • Everyone was surprised by it. • Stalin didn't expect that the United States would intervene for S. Korea (as far as we know) • The US didn't expect China to come in for N. Korea. • No one expected a big war to be limited to such a small location (relatively) • There was pretty serious discussion about using nuclear weapons • Fall of 1950 a General requests the bombing of Chinese crossing the river into N. Korea, he is denied and told to bomb the southern bridges as to not bomb China. Questions raised by these events: What Caused the Korean War? • Traditional: the N. Koreans acted on orders from Stalin and are to blame o International communism on the offensive o Action from order of Stalin • Revisionist: o War is a civil war between North and South o Triggered by Southern attacks across the borders • Therefore defensive from the North. • Later Points of View: o The soviets and Chinese were intimately involved in the decisions to launch warfare • Newer points of views: o Mixes of all of them with new international scholarship • Another viewpoint: o The U.S. was caused by the United States o Local conflict (civil war) that pulled Stalin into the War o Great Power Struggle super imposed on a civil war • Implies that you can disentangle conflicts between the local government and the larger international conflict • William Stueck: o Book: Rethinking the Korean War o The internal conflict that exists in Korea was shaped by the international system and the course of the war reflects what's going on globally ** What's unique about the cold war? You can't separate the domestic and international conflicts. What was going on internationally was being reflected domestically and there were international conflicts taking place in small areas. What determined the course of the Korean War? • Harper o War of Delusions o But also: Hard military realities determine thee course fo the war What are the consequences of the war? • The United States consolidates the position in Western Europe • The United States rearms western Europe • By December of 1954 Repercussions in Europe? What events lead up to the War in Korea? • Pre political situation in Korea o Occupied by Japan for a very long time • Politics in Korea related how the Koreans respond to the occupying army • Divisions: those who cooperate o WW2 there was an underground resistance, but more that stood beside the Japanese o Land Lords and Presents divisions o Factory workers and Farmers divisions o Division = chance for warfare At the end of the War: • Left: People's Republic in Seoul o In response: ended up supporting the Korean provisional government (Exiled government) • Korea itself is divided in August of 1945 at the Potsdam Conference o US is trying to get the Soviets to enter the war against Japan. o Soviets have the north o Americans have the south • Neither work with the people's republics. The U.S. favors conservative and a lot of people who had been in exile. • The Soviets favor leftist forces, mostly those who had been active in the underground, and then later those that had been in exile in communist china and Manchuria • 1948 basically have 2 states What happened to the provisional Korean Republic? • • 800,000 people flee from the North and settle in the US sector of S. Korea • Both o Want an independent Korea o United Under their rule o Want to be strong • Insurgency in the south o Inspired by the left and opposed by conservative government Kim, Stalin, Mao: • Harper's account: March of 1949 Kim goes to Moscow and asks Stalin to help him reunite the country by War. o They say no. • March 1949 Why does Stalin Change his position? • December 1949 the United States decides to withdrawal from Korea • Sino-Soviet Treaty of 1950 • Shifting balance in North Asia. Was drawing the line a mistake or something that saved lives? • Should we have been involved? Shifts in U.S. politics in this year • 1948 Political campaigns o Dewy Wins (Truman) o Conservative republicans were upset o More government involvement. McCarthyism: • I have a list of 500 communists in the state department o Didn't o Dean Atchison was a big target • Refused to turn his back on Alfred who was a soviet spy. o Context for NSC 68 (mobilization against the Soviet Union) 25 June: • Off of the plane from Independence, goes into meetings at Blair house and they decide to try to stop the Korean War. On the plane he thought back to the 1930s and Munich, Manchuria, Ethiopia: Moments at which the western democracies had seen western democracies had stood by. Things to consider: • The attack by the north violated the UN Charter and the Soviet Agreement with the United States • The first time the communists cross the border to create conflict • General MacArthur : o If the United States doesn't intervene, the ROK will be defeated • Broad allied support o Western Europeans wanted the United States to fight this war. o Everyone thought they could be next • People thought the war would go nuclear but it doesn’t • In 1950 the US announces it might use Nuclear weapons and the Europeans backlashed. Lessons from the Korean War: • The conventional balance matters • Nuclear weapons don't lend themselves to getting people to do things in particular. • Militarization with Conflict o People imagine the Cold War as something that could turn into WW3 o This could have been a conflict that turned into WW3 o In the early years, the Cold war was much more political and diplomatic o Korea marks a turning point • The result of really misconceived plans • The American's didn't understand what the soviets were up to when they pulled out of South Korea
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