Introduction PSYCH 361
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Diana Ochoa on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 361 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by Eric J. Gee, Ph.D. in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Principles of Behavioral Learning in Psychology at Brigham Young University - Idaho.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Chapter 1 | Introduction: Learning to Change Book Notes - Learning is 1 and foremost a survival mechanism - Change is the rule; the struggle to survive is an effort to cope with change - Changes: climate, terrain, pollution, predators, environment - Natural selection also changes certain kinds of behavior - Many reflexes serve to protect us from injury - Reflex failure can occur with the use of drugs, which depress the central nervous system - Motor reflexes slow with age - Genes play a role in fearfulness, excitability, aggressiveness, activity level, drug abuse, risk-taking - Main problem with natural selection is that its slow, occurring over generations - Adaptations that helped can become useless quickly - Learning: evolved modifiability—characteristic allowing organisms to change within the lifetime of the individual - The key issue in learning: did a change in behavior occur? - Behavior=measurable - Changes in behavior are learning, the result of experience - No change in environment, no change in behavior - Behavior changes due to drugs, injury, aging, disease don’t qualify as learning - Contribute to behavior: natural selection and learning Lecture Notes - Learning: behavioral and cognitive o Behavioral: raising hand automatically after a professor asks a question o Cognitive: learning the chemical formula of water o Both: involve change - Charles Darwin o Variation of animals, physical characteristic o Change in environment o Random mutation o Changes in behavior too - Categories of behavior o Reflexes: behavior elicited by a stimulus (baby reflexes) o Modal action pattern (MAP) o General behavioral traits - Behavior: overt action or response, its observable - Stimulus: environmental event - Elicit: to bring forth - Releaser associated with MAPs, stimulus associated with reflexes - Instinct: natural action - Reflexes and MAPs: not learned, don’t have to think about it - MAP has more variability than reflexes - MAP example: dad penguin passing off chick to mom penguin - MAP: whole body experience, reflex: a single part of the body - Do humans have MAPs? o MAP criteria Done without thought Innate Complex Chapter 1 | Introduction: Learning to Change Presence of releaser Doesn’t vary much Whole organism o Possible human MAPs (if we do have MAPs, then maybe our frontal lobes lets us ignore them) Nurturing children Moral behavior Food seeking Mate seeking Independence - General behavioral traits o Degree of behavioral inhibition o Criteria Simple and complex Variable, individual Purposive behaviors, thoughtful Malleable by experience Not automatic - Genetics o Behavioral inhibition: highly reactive, low reactive o Evolved modifiability: ability to modify behavior o Environment: certain consequences affect us - William James o Consciousness is an adaption o Habits guide our behavior, sometimes things we don’t think about - Ivan Pavlov o Learns how to modify behaviors - John Watson o Psychology should only focus on behaviors o Environment is everything o Ignore consciousness because it’s not observable o Wants psychology to be like other sciences o Theoretical goal: predict and control behavior o Premises if behaviorism Universe isn’t random, but orderly There are causes of behavior and they can be found Causes aren’t found in intrinsic factors, like personality Causes are found in the external environment, physiology, genetics, and past experiences Such intrinsic factors can be explained and described as behaviors - BF Skinner o “humans are complex chickens” o Neobehaviorism o Food isn’t a reinforce because its diminishing hunger o Atheoretical: no theory, no explanation o We need to know what control behaviors
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