AGRI 116 Week 5 Notes
AGRI 116 Week 5 Notes AGRI 116 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Wade on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AGRI 116 001 at Colorado State University taught by Andrew P. Norton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Plants and Civilizations in Agricultural and Environmental Plant Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
9/19/16 Potatoes Economics of Potatoes: Leading Potato Producing Countries (million metric tons) ● China 86 ● India 45 ● Russia 30 ● Ukraine 23 ● United States 19 ● Germany 11 ● Poland 9 ● Bangladesh 8 ● Belarus 7 ● Netherlands 7 Places that have the most varieties of potatoes (peru/bolivia) are not the same places that are producing the most potatoes Places that produce the most potatoes are not the places that consume the most potatoes (US and Europe/potato belt vodka) Botanics of Potatoes: Solanum tuberosum member of the nightshade family (Solanaceae) Other nightshade family vegetables ● Tomato people used to be afraid to eat them because they thought tomatoes were werewolf fruits ● Chilies ● Eggplant ● Tomatillos Solanine secondary plant compound in the leaves and stems of potatoes and tomatoes ● Glycoalkaloid poison ● Toxic in small quantities ● Works as a plant’s natural defense against pests Potato is a modified stem called a tuber ● Tuber function ○ Nutrient storage ○ Aesexual reproduction you can cut up a potato and replant each piece as long as they have eyes on them (eyes are modified leaves growth point for new plant) Potatoes that are grown to produce other potatoes are called seed potatoes Potatoes can also be grown from seeds extracted from the potato plant fruit ● Potato plant flowers and fruit have high solanine content (poisonous) The Center of Origin for the Potato Mountains of Peru/Bolivia Clues that show us that these are the origin places: ● AxoMama the Peruvian “divine mother” or “goddess” of the potato found depicted on pottery and such ● Tradition of burning a sacrifice to Pacama (Pachamama) a Bolivian Earth goddess ● DNA markers that match common strains to local strains in different places Potato Culture in Bolivia/Peru Increase variety in center of origin potato production ● Pros: ○ Disease resistance ○ Increase land utilization ○ Higher yield within and across field plots ○ Higher chance of stumbling across new varieties ● Cons: ○ Loss of synchrony of germination/flowering/harvesting across the entire mountainside cropping system this could be okay though, if you know how this may make it easier to extent crop across whole year and have enough storage Potato Park ● 4 tribes came together to preserve varieties and protect their own rights, get some compensation for potatoes growing in those areas Chuno potatoes freeze dried potatoes that are the favorite way to prepare potatoes in Peru/Bolivia Potatoes didn’t get popular in Europe until midlate 1700s because people avoided them for various reasons: ● Resemblance to other deadly plants (nightshades) ● They were lumpy associated with leprosy ● They were not mentioned in the bible ● They were from the Americas heathens Advantages of potatoes to the European economy ● More productive than other crops whole family could be supported on single acre ● Highly nutritious nutritionally complete when combined with dairy products ● Very cheap to produce ● Stored well ● Resisted destruction during conflicts armies would sometimes burn/trample crops Potato culture in Ireland ● Replaced grains ● Lumper Potato monoculture catastrophe ○ Grew really well so everyone grew it ○ No resistance to a specific water mold spread rapidly in 1845 9/21/16 Bananas 16.5 million metric tons of global banana exports (2012) Only one type of banana sold all over the place One of the most commonly consumed fruits in the US Banana biology (Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana) ● Not trees, giant herb plants ○ Main stem that seems like trunk is called a pseudostem just a bunch of leaves ○ Fruit produced from an inflorescence (banana heart) forms large hanging cluster ● After fruiting, the mother plant dies ○ Needs 14 month of warmth ○ In the wild they are able to reproduce by seed, but commercial bananas don’t have seeds in them ● Edible bananas result from parthenocarpic fruit ○ Parthenocarpy is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules ○ These are seedless female fruits, no fertilization ● Wild bananas produce by seed ○ Occasionally they will produce a seedless banana, but it can’t reproduce on their own can be maintained by humans through vegetative reproduction ● Vegetative propagation ○ Take the little sucker plant off the mother plant, that is genetically identical, and plant it elsewhere ● Although seedless bananas are sterile female plants, they may produce some viable pollen ○ Wild varieties can use this pollen and create interesting variations ○ Sometimes this results in triploid bananas completely sterile (male and female) ● Usually AA and AAB types are sweet, dessert bananas ● AB and BB are the savory ones referred to as plantains In 1871 Minor Keith’s family signed a contract with Costa Rica to compete a nearly 100 mile railway linking the mountains to the coast ● Lack of financing ● Tropical diseases ● Torrential rain ● 4000 people died including some of Minor Keith’s brothers ● Brought in workers from other places ● Took about 19 years to compete ● Costa Rica government couldn’t pay Keith back ○ He renegotiated the loan, and so they granted him tax free land and extensive rights along the railway ○ In 1899, Keith’s railway merged with the Boston Fruit company and became the United Fruit Company ○ He just had so much power ○ Reliable shipping charged people to go on a cruise and used their money to pay for the shipping of bananas down in the hold ○ Vertical integration merger of companies at different stages of production and/or distribution in the same industry ■ Monopoly almost ○ Term “banana republic” ● Until the 1950s a single banana cultivar, Big Mike, had the yield, shipping and eating qualities that United Fruit wanted ○ Panama disease got it ● Search for a replacement Cavendish resistant to Panama disease ○ 99% of banana exports now ○ Tropical Race 4 is now attacking Cavendish