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Nuclear Chemistry

by: Stephanie Argueta

Nuclear Chemistry CHEM 1151K

Stephanie Argueta

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About this Document

Here are notes and some answers to the practice quiz that are most likely going to be on the quiz next week. Email me if you have any questions! (:
Dr. Nilmi Fernando
Class Notes
Nuclear Chemistry, Chemistry
25 ?





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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Argueta on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1151K at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Nilmi Fernando in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Chapter 5: Nuclear Chemistry v An unstable nucleus is radioactive, which means it emits small particles of energy called radiation to become more stable v An isotope of an element that emits radiation is called a radioisotope v Types of radiation: o Alpha: two protons & two neutrons; mass number of 4 and atomic number of 2 AND a charge of 2+ o Beta: charge of 1- and mass of 0 o Positron: has a positive 1+ charge w/ mass of 0. It is produced by an unstable nucleus when a proton is transformed into a neutron and a positron o Gamma rays: high energy radiation when an unstable nucleus is undergoing a rearrangement of its particles to make the nucleus more stable v Biological Effects of Radiation: o Your body will be damaged if you have radiation go through your: bone marrow, skin, reproductive organs, and intestinal lining. v Radiation Protection: o Proper shielding is needed to prevent exposure, such as skin, paper, clothing (lab coats and gloves) o Long tongs are used to pick up radioactive materials o KEEP YOUR DISTANCE. Don’t touch it or get near it as you possibly can. o If you happen to be in an area w/ radiation, get out as soon as possible to avoid the chances of exposure v Radiation measurement: o Curie (Ci)- original unit of activity, the number of disintegrations that occur in 1s for 1g of radium (3.7x10^10 disintegrations/s) o Bequerel (Bq)- similar to Ci but is 1 disintegration/s o Rad (radiation absorbed dose)- measures the amount of radiation absorbed by a gram of material such as body tissue. § The SI unit for this is gray (Gy) o Rem (radiation equivalent in humans)- measures the biological effects of different kinds of radiation v To determine the equivalent dose (rem dose), absorbed dose is multiplied by a factor that adjusts for biological damaged caused by particular form of radiation o Rem= rad x factor v 1 rem = 1000mrem 1 Sv (Sievert) = 100 rem v Medical applications using radioactivity o Scans with radioisotopes o Positron emission tomography (PET) – these produce 3D images of organs o Computed tomography- monitors absorption of 30,000 x- ray beams directed at layers of the organ o Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- absorption of energy when protons in hydrogen atoms are excited by a strong magnetic field (this process does not use x-ray radiation)


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