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World History 102 Chapter 19 notes

by: Tristen Griffith

World History 102 Chapter 19 notes 70054

Marketplace > Alabama A&M University > History > 70054 > World History 102 Chapter 19 notes
Tristen Griffith
Alabama A&M University
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About this Document

these are previous notes but are good to review for our final
History 102
Class Notes
european, Exploration, WorldsOceans




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tristen Griffith on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 70054 at Alabama A&M University taught by Dr.Halverson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see History 102 in History at Alabama A&M University.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Chapter 19: European Reconnaissance of the Worlds Oceans Thursday, September 22, 2016 9:25 PM Between the 1400-1800 European mariners charted the world's oceans and further their knowledge of geography through their exploration of world oceans o Motives for Exploration The main motive for exploration… 1. Search for basic resources 2. Search for lands suitable for cash crops 3. To establish new routes to Asia 4. Expand Christianity Portuguese were the first to set out on the search for resources 1. Led to sugar cultivation in the Atlantic islands  Lure of trade More alluring than fresh land/ resources were establishing trade markets in Asia The price of the Muslim Middle-man caused Europeans to branch out Merchants and monarchs were after valued spices African trade also interested Europe  Missionary Efforts Christianity is a missionary religion Expansion of Christianity could be peaceful or violent Overseas voyages offered opportunity to spread Christianity Spreading became a justification and reinforcement for material motives  Technology of Exploration  Without advanced technology and navigation skills Europeans would not have been able to accomplish the voyages they did 1. Ships and sails  Increased maneuverability by building a rudder  2 types of sails:  Square Sails: take advantage of hind wind  Triangular lateen sail: catch winds from side and behind  The ability to manipulate winds was essential 2. Navigational instruments  The most important piece of navigational equipment was the compass  Diffused from the Chinese  Astrolabe was a simplified Greek instrument used to determine latitude  Led to the creation of the cross/ back staff 3. Knowledge of winds and currents  Critical to European sailing was the concept of "volta do mar"  Using prevailing winds and currents to reach a destination  Allowed Europeans to travel reliably to coast lines  Voyages of explorations: Mediterranean to Atlantic Prince Henry 1. Prince of Portugal from 1394-1460 2. 1415 conquered Moroccan port 3. He sponsored a series of African voyages  Led to the establishment of many trading posts in Africa 4. He encouraged and emphasized Portugal's expansion Vasco da Gama 1. Traveled East to find India 2. Pepper and Cinnamon were prized possessions 3. 1500 built Portuguese ports throughout the Indian ocean basin Christopher Columbus 1. Proposed sailing West to reach Asian market 2. Columbus had a misconstrued idea of the Earth's dimensions 3. He sought royal sponsorship based on the theory that sailing west would be more profitable  He was eventually funded by Spain 4. Never reached India 5. Hemispheric Links:  Columbus's findings spread & the English, Dutch & French soon followed  Columbus's journey linked east and west and led to momentous consequence  From the Atlantic to the Pacific Ferdinand Magellan 1. Father of reconnaissance of the pacific ocean 2. Believed that Asian markets were close to West coast Americas 3. Wanted to follow Christopher Columbus by sailing West from the Americas 4. He successfully circumnavigated the world The Circumnavigation 1. Magellan's voyage was harder than anticipated  Crew man were forced to eat worm ridden biscuits 2. Lack of nutrients led to scurvy  Exploration of the Pacific It took European Explorers almost 3 centuries to map the worlds oceans Spanish merchant expanded on Magellan & established a trade route between Mexico and Philippines English navigators ventured Pacific for a North West passage to Asia 1. Established details of Pacific geography 2. Vitus Bering discovered Bering Strait Captain James Cook 1. Most important of Pacific explorers 2. Charted Eastern Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Vanuatu & Hawaii 3. Allowed European geographers to compile the worlds oceans and lands 4. Helped to gather an accurate understanding of Natives  Trade and Conflict in Early Modern Asia Commercial and Political rivalries led to numerous wars between competing European Powers for territory/ resources Trading Post Empires 1. Portuguese trading posts  Portuguese mariners built the earliest trading posts empire  Their goal was to control trade routes  By mid- 16th century Portuguese merchants built 50 plus traing posts Alfonso Alberqerque 1. Portuguese commander in Indian Ocean during 16th century 2. Encouraged aggressive behavior while conquering 3. Seized Hormuz, Goa, and Melaka


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