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CC 201-001 Week 2, Class 2 notes

by: Jennifer Gintovt

CC 201-001 Week 2, Class 2 notes CC 201-001

Jennifer Gintovt
GPA 3.361
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About this Document

Here are my personal notes from week 2 class 2 lecture. These notes cover topics including: -cyberspace -old wine, new bottles - 3 kinds of hackers -hacking vs. cracking -Commerce Clause -Com...
Introduction to Cyber Criminology
Adam Ghazi-Tehrani
Class Notes
Cybercrime, cyberspace, hacking, hackers, crime




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Gintovt on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CC 201-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Adam Ghazi-Tehrani in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cyber Criminology in Cyber Criminology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 09/22/16
CC 201- Cybercrime Why call it cybercrime? • Cyberspace first coined by author William Gibson (1982) o Referred to any “virtual environment where networked computer activity takes place” What is cybercrime? • Any crime that can occur within cyberspace • Symbolize insecurity and risk online • During cybercrimes beginnings, academics discussed whether or not cybercrimes were unique and new crimes or if they were just old crimes being committed in new ways “New Crimes” • Academic discussion became known as “Old wine, new bottles” debate • “old” crimes o fraud, identity theft, false advertising “spam” • “new” crimes o Hacking (unauthorized access) o Distributed denial of service (DDOS) o Ransomware Hacking • 3 kinds of hackers o Black Hat § Hack with malicious intent for personal gain o Grey Hat § Doesn’t work for own personal gain, but might technically commit crimes and do things many would find unethical • Ex. Hacker finds security flaw in a system but then exposes it publically instead of directly to the company o White Hat § “ethical hackers” who use skills for legal and ethical reasons • Ex. many are employed by corporations to test the flaws in their cyber security • Destroying/interfering with the normal operation of a computer system • Can cause damage or disruption • Crackers- o people with malevolent intent (cracking into computers) • Unauthorized access o Doing something without consent (ex. approaching, trespassing within, communicating with, storing data in/retrieving data from, et.) o Hacking and unauthorized access can go hand-in-hand- most cybercriminals get charged with both • Viruses o Set of computer instructions created to modify, damage, destroy, record, or transmit info within a computer system/network w/o permission from owner o Designed to infect other computer programs or computer data The Commerce Clause: • Gives government power to regulate commerce internationally and interstate (includes Indian reservations) • Interstate- virus may be made in Alabama but could affect people in Kentucky • Effect of clause depends on Supreme Court’s interpretation o Post 1937 era, commerce clause now gives power to congress to authorize federal control of economic matters unlimitedly o Recently has become more restricted again § Limited to matters of trade and production Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 (CFAA) • Specifies criminal offenses against protected computers • Protected computers are: o Any ordinary computer, including cellphones, due to interstate nature of most internet communication • 7 parts: o having knowingly accessed a computer you don’t have access too/ stealing information and using it and or not letting those who have access to it access it o stealing financial information o breaking into a government computer o hacking with the intent to commit fraud (craigslist murders) (only up to $5000 in a 1-year period) o knowingly cause transmission of a program, information, code or command that causes reckless damage/damage (viruses) o trafficking any password or similar information (Snowden) o extortion Strict liability: • A crime that can just occur o Ex. Child pornography that is on a computer someone bought o Statutory rape- 21 and over club, meet someone and have sex, find out later that they were underage Criticisms of CFAA • It’s a federal crime to violate the terms of service of a website • Research is limited • Remove protections found elsewhere in law • The United States of America v. Aaron Swartz o Co-founder of Reddit o Prosecuted for downloading numerous academic journal articles from JSTOR o Plan was to download the entirety of JSTOR and then upload all the articles to an open, public and free website o Caught after completing the first part of plan o Was facing up to 35 years and up to $1 million in fines o Crime was likened to “checking out too many books” o Committed suicide SCI-HUB • Provides free access to academic articles that are hidden behind paywalls • Hosts over 51,000,000 scientific academic articles • Papers uploaded daily


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