BSB Issues 150, Week 2
BSB Issues 150, Week 2 01:119:150
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Wendy Liu on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:119:150 at Rutgers University taught by Anthony Uzwiak in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 220 views. For similar materials see Biology, Society, and Biomedical Issues in Biological Sciences at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Week 2: Ethical Scientific Research 19 September 2016, 22 September 2016 Biology, Society, and Biomedical Issues Professor Uzwiak Wendy Liu IF – impact factor – yearly average # of citations to that article/journal; higher # = more influential First author – responsible for intellectual content of paper; first name in list of authors Principal Investigator (PI) – research group leader, lab head, etc.; last name in list of authors Most scientific research is inductive - done in context of what’s already known (not deductive) Scientists are obligated to know the field first before researching You can’t accidentally replicate experiment bc you didn’t know that it exists already Retractions – official removal of a previously published paper: the original article should not have been published, it’s data and conclusions should not be used as part of the foundation for future research Results not contributing to truth Negatively affecting society Almost 70% of all retractions are due to misconduct Reason for scientific misconduct: Publications = currency of science Pressure for publications: o Funding grant proposals o Promotions o Keeping jobs/positions – need to show that you excel at science 3 forms of misconduct 1) Fraud – 50% retractions attributable to fraud a. Fabrication of data b. Falsification of data c. Violation of ethical standards d. Etc. 2) Plagiarism – 10% a. Taking others ideas, being aware of their work, using same methodology/approach, beat them to publication b. Using someone else’s style to write (bc you suck at scientific/technical writing) 3) Duplicate replication – <10% a. Stealing data/info/graphs from your own work b. Recycling data from past papers + republishing it Predictors of committing fraud: 1. History of fraud – people who have committed fraud in the past are likely to repeat in the future a. ~53% of fraudulent papers are written by a first author who are repeat offenders i. only 18% of erroneous papers are written by repeat offenders 2. Geographical location – fraud is more common in USA, Germany, Japan, China, etc. a. Significantly more fraud than error among retracted papers from USA than rest of world b. USA+Germany+Japan+China account for ¾ of retractions due to fraud Characteristics of fraudulent papers: fraudulent papers have more authors o diffusion of responsibility o collaborators tend to also have retracted papers fraudulent papers take longer to retract that erroneous papers fraudulent papers are published in journals with higher IF o one publication in a high IF journal is worth equal to or even more than many publications in lower IF journals Prof. Uzwiak’s solution to unethical scientific research Currently: no one but the researcher himself gets to see the “real data” o Published data is all condensed forms of the original through statistics Suggestion #1: whoever funded the grant owns the data set o if requested, researchers must provide the original data to the “owners” Suggestion #2: make data publicly available & accessible, which should be easer today b/c we have more powerful technology (i.e. the internet)
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