Reli 212: Chapter 4
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ghost21 on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 77695 at George Mason University taught by Ro in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Religions of Asia Dr.Ro World Religions: Eastern Traditions Chapter 4 Jaina [Traditions at a Glance] -5-8 million followers -primarily India -24 Jinas or Tirthankaras: series of “fordbuilders” who achieved enlightenment -no deities in philosophy; minor ones in popular practice; worship Hindu deities such as Sri Lakshmi -Authoritative Texts: (earliest texts lost) Svetambara sect reveres Agama collections—life stories of Tirthankaras (focus on Prakaranas—treatises) -Teachings: soul caught in karmic bondage as result of violence; intended and unintended. Non-violence most important principle, in thought, word, and deed. Once freed from karma, soul attains “crystal Purity” Side Note: Sallekhana—ritual death achieved at end of long fast Renunciation—departure from living during life (Sallekhana is logical end) [Overview] -path to happiness, truth, and self-realization is path of restraint -Jaina community known for effective, dynamic engagement with world -expresses itself ritually through veneration and emulation of Jinas Tirthankaras—builders of briges across ocean of birth and death (samsara) -Chakravartin—ideal benevolent ruler -Arhat—perfected being Side Note: Moksha (liberation/nirvana) [Sites] Shravanabelagola, Karnataka -festival where Jainas bathe head of Bhaubali statue with substances—not “offerings” since Bhaubali (in state of Moksha) cannot give or receive anything. Ritual is for pure act of devotion [Early Sangha] -Mahavira established four-fold community (caturvidhyasangha) of monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen -open acceptance of women in sangha women generally seen as “objects of desire” (distract males from path) -at age 72 Mahavira “left his body’ (achieved Moksha) -Jainas faces challenge of sustaining tradition without hope of spiritual guidance from Jina -within two centuries of Mahavira’s death Jaina community split in two northern group abandoned Mahavira’s principle of nudity and began wearing white robe (white-clad/Svetambaras) soutberns thought nudity was most elemental expressions of non-attachment and non- violence (sky-clad/Digambaras) -both groups regarded women’s bodies as inferior to men’s ascetic path more difficult for women Svetambaras permit women full initiation (19 Jina—Mallinath—was female) -Digambaras believe one must have already transcended bodily appetites and functions -Svetambaras believe that all embodied being are subject to bodily demands [Sacred Literature] -Agama three main branches 1. Purva (“the ancient”) Jaina metaphysics, cosmology, and philosophy 2. Anga (“the limbs”) Discussion of mendicant conduct, doctrine, karma, religious narratives 3. Angabahya (“ancillary limbs”) Subsidiary collection of commentaries on topics (including astrology and cycles of time) [Cosmology] -entire cosmos (loka) made of six eternal substances called dravya -important step to self-perfection -classified in two categories Jiva (soul) Eternal substance with conscious Ajiva (non-soul) Substance without conscious Five types: 1. Pudgala (pure matter) 2. Kala (time) 3. Dharma (principle of motion) 4. Adharma (principle of rest) 5. Akash (space) Pudgala -concrete substance with attributes: taste, touch, smell, color -all worldly knowledge acquired by means of pudgala -neutral -good karma (punya) -bad karma (paap) [Practice] -correct practices (samyak caritra) one of the “Three Jewels” of Jainism correct intuition (samyak darshan) correct knowledge (samyak jnana) -aims to purify the soul of the Pudgala that clings to it [Ascetic Practice] -mahavratas—fives “great vows” 1. Ahimsa (non-harm) 2. Satya (truthful-ness) 3. Asteya (non-stealing) 4. Brahmacharya (celibacy) 5. Aparigraha (non-possession/non-attachment)
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