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Human Growth and Development Week 6 Notes

by: Madison Greer

Human Growth and Development Week 6 Notes EPY 2513

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Madison Greer

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These notes are from week 6.
Human Growth and Development
Dr. Abernathy
Class Notes
Language, speech, emotions, toddlers, The, Play, years
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Greer on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EPY 2513 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Abernathy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
9/19/16­9/21/16 Human Growth and Development Chapter 5­ Early Childhood: Body and Mind • body changes ­ growth patterns • weight (4.5 lbs) and height (3 in) increase and the relationship between these  measurements changes • average body mass index (BMI) is lower than at any other time of life • children become slimmer as the lower body lengthens • mastery of gross and fine motor skills results from extensive, active play ­ nutrition • obesity is a more frequent problem than malnutrition • in low­income family cultures, parents tend to guard against undernutrition  and rely on fast foods, so their children are especially vulnerable to obesity • overfeeding is causing an epidemic of illnesses associated with obesity, such  as heart disease and diabetes ­ nutritional deficiencias  • children eat more vegetables and fewer fried goods usually gain bone mass  but not fat • many young children are compulsive about daily routine  ­ just right phenomenon ­ oral health  • tooth decay correlates with obesity • teeth are affected by diet and illness • infected teeth can affect the rest of the child’s body • brain development ­ size • by age 2, a child’s brain weighs 75% of what it will in adulthood • brain reaches 90% of adult weight by age 6 ­ from 2­6, maturation of prefrontal cortex has several benefits 9/19/16­9/21/16 Human Growth and Development • sleep becomes more regular • emotions become more nuanced and responsive • temper tantrums  • uncontrollable tears or laughter ­ corpus callosum • allows both hemispheres of brain to communicate ­ lateralization • right hemisphere controls left side of body, left hemisphere controls right side  of body ­ myelination • speed of thought increases; improved reaction time ­ left­handedness • the whole brain ­ left­right distinction is exaggerated ­ no one is exclusively left or right­brained ­ both sides of brain usually involved in every skill • impulse control and perseveration ­ maturation of the prefrontal cortex gradually enables children to focus attention  and curb impulsiveness ­ before such maturation, many young children jump from task to task; they cannot stay quiet  ­ other act in the opposite way; in a phenomenon called perseveration, some  children persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action, unable to quit • opposites but caused by the same thing • Brain Development ­ emotions and the brain • limbic system ­ parts of the brain that are crucial in the expression and regulating  emotions 9/19/16­9/21/16 Human Growth and Development • amygdala­ fear, anxiety, about the size of an almond • hippocampus­ memory maker • hypothalamus • Thinking During Early Childhood ­ Piaget: preoperational thought • pre operational means “before (pre) logical operations (reasoning processes) • the child’s verbal ability permits symbolic thinking • language frees the child from the limits of sensorimotor experience • obstacles ­ centration­ view situation from own perspective and it is difficult for them  to understand why it’s different from others ­ egocentrism­ all you do is focus on yourself, hard to focus on other  perspectives, selfish, self centered ­ focus on appearance­ make decisions based on what they see ­ static reasoning­ at this age, they don't realize that things can change ­ irreversibility­ once something happens, it can’t be undone ­ conservation­ same amount in different containers but children don't  understand  ­ Vygotsky: social learning • every aspect of children’s cognitive development is embedded in the social  context • mentors ­ present challenges ­ provide guidance as knowledgable sources ­ offer assistance (without taking over) ­ add crucial info ­ encourage motivation ­ apprentices in thinking 9/19/16­9/21/16 Human Growth and Development ­ guided participation ­ zone of proximal development (ZPD) ­ scaffolding­ support ­ language and cognitive development complement each other  • private speech­ sitting and thinking  • social mediation­ interacting with people ­ children’s theories • theory­theory­ child’s attempt to explain something they observed • theory of mind­ your ability to realize that other people think differently than  you • Language and Words and the Limits of Logic ­ vocabulary explosion • the average child knows about 500 words at age 2 and more than 10,000 at  age 6 ­ fast­mapping­ associating similar things  ­ logical extension­ using “logic” to associate things  • ex.­ child knows what Dalmatian is, then sees white cow with black spots and  thinks, “it’s a Dalmatian cow!”  ­ basic grammar  • grammar of a language • overregularization­ pick up on grammar rules but misuse them • pragmatics­ knowing how to talk to people  ­ learning two languages • language­minority children ­ often have lower school achievement, diminished self­esteem, and  inadequate employment


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