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End of Ch. 4

by: Nicole Wolfe

End of Ch. 4 SOC 110

Nicole Wolfe

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About this Document

These notes cover the last part of chapter 4: socialization. These are the last notes we had in class before the 1st exam.
Introduction to Sociology
Ashley Leschyshyn
Class Notes
Introduction to Sociology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Wolfe on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 110 at University of North Dakota taught by Ashley Leschyshyn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of North Dakota.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
9/15/16  Goffman’s Presentation of Self o Interaction dependent upon particular setting o Dramaturgy  Interaction=actors on stage o Dramaturgy -> Impression Management  Distinctive appearance -> satisfy audience  Attempt to control or manipulate your audience o Front stage – physical stage  Public self  Self concept that people, typically strangers, see you  People are the most apt to utilize impression management o Back stage  Private self  More intimate  People who have a stronger emotional connection to you are seeing you self concept  True self – don’t have to perform  Resocialization o Process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones  Voluntary or involuntary  Total institutions: regulates all aspects of a person’s life under a single authority o Step 1: stripped of “self”  Degradation Ceremony  Set of humiliation rituals for that individual o Step 2: attempt to resocialize  Social structure – society is organized into predictable relationships o Status – social position a person holds  Status set  Accumulation of all statuses one has  Ascribed status  Given to you at birth  Permanent  Involuntary o Gender o Sex o Race o Ethnicity o Age  Achieved status  Own efforts  Able to attain through ability and effort  Voluntary o Career o Education o Both positive and negative  Ascribed status influences your achieved status  Master status  Ascribed or achieved o Status that dominates and thereby determines a persons general position in society  Determines identity o Occupations o Celebrity o Disability Social Structure  Role o Behavior expected of a person who has a particular status o Role conflict  Conflict=couple=two or more social statuses  Incompatible expectations arising from two or more social statuses held by same person o Role strain  Strain=same=single status  Stress arises from incompatible demands among roles within a single status  Social groups o Two or more people who interact; share common identity; sense of belonging o Primary group  Small  Intimate, face-to-face association  Long term  Emotional  Ex: friend group o Secondary group  Large  Impersonal; little social intimacy  Temporary  Ex: people in your class, athletic team  Formal organizations o Secondary group (interchangeable terms) o Achieve specific goals o Efficiency o Three types of formal organizations  Voluntary organizations  Share common interest  Not paid  Ex: volunteering of humane society  Coercive organizations  No choice but to participate  Ex: prisoner, government mandatory draft, total institution  Utilitarian organization  Achieve desired goal in exchange for money  Similar to voluntary just paid  Ex: job  Ex: mental health patients in a facility are part of a coercive organization. The doctors, nurses and other workers are part of a utilitarian organization. Students volunteering to build their resume are part of a voluntary organization.  Bureaucracy o Max Weber (ideal type bureaucracy)  Abstract model of essential characteristics of a phenomenon  Important characteristics ensure organization’s goals  Hierarchy  Division of labor (efficiency)  Written rules and regulations  Employment based on technical qualifications  Impersonality o There are 2 shortcomings of bureaucracy  The trained incapacity  People become so stuck to the formal written rules of the organization that they lack the capacity to know when a problem arises. The individuals who work there develop blind spots to think for themselves or think critically.  Ex: terroristic attacks on 9/11 the citizens were appalled that the government couldn’t save all the people who died. They didn’t realize how the government knew that there were possible threats why they didn’t prevent 9/11. The FBI and CIA don’t put their resources together so they couldn’t work together to figure out the events that were about to occur. (example in textbook)  Goal displacement  If the organization works at maximum efficiency and reaches the end goal. In order for it to continue to exist it must come up with a new goal to reach for.  Ex: Marsh of Dimes was an organization that wanted to find a cure for polio and once they found a vaccination for polio they had to find a new goal. Now they want to produce stronger, healthier babies. They broadened their original goal. Culture  Cultural lag *forgot to cover in culture lecture* (under material and non- material culture) o Occurs when you have material culture that is introduced into society there is going to be a lag in time when the material culture is introduced to when non-material culture catches up to the presentation of the material culture. o Ex: when cell phones were introduced, wasn’t normal when they first came out now they are normal. Laws and mores surrounding cell phones are now coming into play whereas when they first came about there weren’t any laws about cell phone use.


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