Science of Human Nutrition- Week 4
Science of Human Nutrition- Week 4 NUTR 23511-009
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Notetaker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 23511-009 at Kent State University taught by Tanya R. Falcone (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Nutrition at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Science of Human Nutrition Week 4 notes Nutrition Labels Key elements of nutrition labeling nutrition facts panel has calories, carbs, fats, proteins, etc. not ingredients Nutrient claims claim what the product is making ex. a Whole grain, 20% calcium, specific nutrient Health claims reduce risk of heart disease can be both on food and supplements Structure and function claims specific to supplements Qualified health claims has gone through testing and approved by FDA FDA didn’t come into effect until the early 90s Labeling laws Nutrition labeling laws 1990-nutrition labeling act by congress 1993- FDA 2020/2022- another change on food labels Labeling Mandatory Serving size- what the nutrition facts are based on Saturated + Unsaturated + trans-fat= total fat fiber + sugar + starch = total carbs if you have 2 servings, how many grams of carbohydrates will you be able to use for energy (POSSIBLE EXAM QUESTION) What percentage of the product is fat? to find out divide calories from fat by total calories A food label is based off of the recommendation of a 2000 calorie diet (REMEMBER FOR EXAM) The recommended intake for fat is 25-35% 300-600 mg of cholesterol per day Vitamin A, C, Calcium, and Iron have to be on label (REMEMBER FOR EXAM) because high risk of deficiencies and immediate harm Serving sizes on labels (REMEMBER FOR EXAM) FDA fruit juices- 6-8 oz cooked vegetables- ½ cup Based on Daily values (DV) scientifically agreed-upon daily nutrient intake standards Voluntary Labeling Fresh fruits and vegetables and raw meats standard, can be found online Foods sold by local bakeries and foods with packaging that is too small to fit labels (bite-sized candy bars) (EXAM) Restaurant menus if labeled low fat or low calories, must display nutritional information can be fined if not provided Nutrient content claims Term Examples 1 Serving Contains Low fat Low fat cheese ≤3g fat Low cholesterol Low cholesterol egg ≤20mg cholesterol products Low sodium Low sodium soup ≤140mg sodium Lean meat products Lean beef, lean turkey <10g fat <4.5g saturated & trans fat <95mg cholesterol Extra lean Extra lean hamburger <5g fat meat <2g saturated and trans fat <95mg cholesterol Good source Good source of fiber 10-19% DV for the Good source calcium particular nutrient Fresh Fresh spinach Raw Not frozen or heated No preservatives Trans fat free- less than or to .5 g per serving, allowed to put look for the word hydrogenated on ingredient list-means there is trans fat ingestion of trans fats well increase stroke and heart attack by 1% per day Fresh and Low fat will be on exam beef Food labels example Allowed to round down (21% but claims 20%) Enriched vs. fortified Food enrichment and fortification began in 1930s rickets- vitamin D goiter-enlarged thyroid gland- iodine pellagra- niacin- grains iron-deficiency anemia- iron in most things Enrichment the germ and bran has been removed added nutrients to the food because the bran or germ contains nutrients try to avoid bleached, but enriched is not great but not terrible Fortified doesn’t touch the food, adds nutrients Food additive laws Examples ingredients in cake mix sodium aluminum phosphate- gives baked products a light texture xanthan gum thickening agents helps hold products together after baking all foods that contain more than 1 ingredient must have a food label listed in order of their contribution to the weight of the food from highest to lowest beverages that contain juice must list the percentage of juice of the ingredient labels the name of specific color ingredients must be given ex. caramel color allergens: milk, eggs, fish, wheat Health claims approved by the FDA benefits to disease prevention Whole grain foods and heart disease, certain cancers Diets rich in whole grain foods and other plant foods and low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers Soy and heart disease Diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol that include 25g of soy protein a day may reduce the risk of heart disease Saturated fat, cholesterol, and heart disease Eating a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol and high in fruits, vegetables, and grain products that contain fiber may lower blood cholesterol levels and reduce your risk of heart disease Calcium and osteoporosis Regular exercise and a healthy diet with enough calcium help maintain good bone health and may reduce the risk of osteoporosis later in life. Fruits and vegetables and cancer Low-fat diets rich in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of some types of cancer, a disease associated with many factors Dietary supplement labeling Labeling laws have not gone through as much vigorous testing and obtained FDA approval such as drugs under the same regulations as foods not of medications/drugs cannot use the claims: treat disease, cure disease, prevent disease qualified health claims need to be approved by the FDA health claims are specific to disease structure and function claims are specific to functionality or structure of the body immune system, nervous system, heart, brain Know the difference between 2 for exam when supplement is new, wait a year before purchasing Structure and function claims Supplements may have a structure and function claim for up to 9 months while the FDA is evaluating it When products are pulled from shelves : may cause harm may not have enough levels to support the claim not regulated/ may be unsafe examples: zinc- supports the immune system/ prevention of cold and flu (EXAM) Other claims irradiated foods food additive when it has gone through any x-rays gamma rays Electron beams to kill insects, bacteria, molds, etc. must display the radura symbol know the symbol for exam Organic foods not healthier as a whole the seeds are organic does not mean the soil is organic or not using pesticides make sure to research where the foods are coming from does not mean non-GMO there are positives and negative aspects Nutrition, attitudes, and behavior origins of food choices food is cultural and emotional different foods are accepted in different societies Digestion starts with smells, color, Food is much more than survival Heredity- some people taste bitter more than others Familiarity- positive or negative connotations with food Customs- eating turkey at thanksgiving Statistic -Higher the education, the lower the health practices Everything affects your choices Your body will instinctively want carbs because it’s your source of energy (EXAM QUESTION) Symbolic meaning of food foods give us pleasure, relieve our hunger pains, sustain our bodies, provide comfort and a sense of security Pleasurable when demonstrate Our intelligence Our commitment to total fitness Pride in our ethnic heritage Reject when it brings us Discomfort Guilt Unpleasant memories Contrary to our values and beliefs we have cultural associations with certain foods ex. pita and hummus- Mediterranean; tacos-Mexico Different types of foods Status foods Certain foods are typical to certain socio-economic classes Iceberg lettuce vs. romaine lettuce Comfort foods Foods you associate with certain events Emotional distress, when you have a cold, etc. Ice cream Apple pie Steak and potatoes Warm cup of soup Tea and honey Discomfort foods Memories of bad experiences with food Getting sick after eating a specific food even though that food was not the cause of the sickness Negative association with a certain food or type of food Eating disorders are mental rather than physical or nutritionally related emotional disturbances low self esteem males and females are about equally at risk Can food choices change? overall, fruit and vegetable consumption, although still low has increased over the last 20 years (EXAM) Food choices (remember for exam) Unconcerned- don’t care about food choices nothing they’re interested in doing Vacillating- try to eat healthy, but depending on occasion majority of people Committed- very committed to health 80%-20% or 100% of the time eat healthy Stages of change Stage 1: Pre-contemplation -where people do not see a need for change, may be in denial or unaware Stage 2: Contemplation- know they need to change, but not ready to make that change Stage 3: Preparation-a fine line, someone is ready to make a change but does not have the tools to make that change Stage 4: Action- someone who is doing a change for 0-6 months and requiring additional help Stage 5: Maintenance- longer than 6 months maintaining a change, after a year, is called a behavior Stage 6: Relapse – human nature is unpredictable, when someone has fallen off the wagon after doing well for a period of time Always plan for relapses (EXAM QUESTION) Give a scenario, give what stage they’re in each sentence is a stage
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