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by: Jacie Heard

AristotleVideoPresentationNotes.pdf GES145-1

Marketplace > Bethel University > Arts and Humanities > GES145-1 > AristotleVideoPresentationNotes pdf
Jacie Heard
Bethel University

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This is a presentation on the politics and ethics of Aristotle. I contains the types of virtues and what Aristotle believes to be the answer to a life of happiness. In Humanities 1 we have a quiz o...
Humanities 1
Paul Reasoner
Class Notes
philosophy, Happiness, Virtues of Character
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacie Heard on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GES145-1 at Bethel University taught by Paul Reasoner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Humanities 1 in Arts and Humanities at Bethel University.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Aristotle Presentation Ethics and Politics of Aristotle  Practical Sciences o “Concerned with man as a conscious acting being” o Human beings are rational and social creatures  Ethical question: “When is a human being actin rationally and socially?”  Rational and social action is “virtuous” because it fulfill our purpose (telos)  Purpose of the individual and city (polis) is the same: to achieve virtue  Must have peace/comfort to attain these (virtuous) ends o Courage is the virtue a person needs if he focuses on business and if society focuses only on defense and war o Its only in peace (for the city) and comfort (for the individual) that other virtues like temperance and justice are required o *** it’s in peace/comfort that a person can explore true virtue--- recognize it and practice it  This would refer back to Deuteronomy “the slaves have no leisure”—people who are slaves to work or other aspects of life have no leisure (peace/comfort) and cannot explore true virtue much less acquire it o “Without them (virtue) you cannot be happy”  Happiness—a ‘thriving’ that resulting from fulfilling your purpose  Living in cities is natural and creates friendships which are stronger that our initial interest—the city was necessary for living well  To live without a city was to live with no family, home, or law (analogy: be like the cyclopes in The Odyssey)  Politics is founded only on power—but we need to live politically to achieve virtue and happiness  Citizenship involves power (decision- making and minor ruling)—higher that a subject o Requires rational capacity for good decisions and virtues and have peace/comfort/leisure o Leisure is the goal of citizenship  2 types of virtue: o Intellectual: come from reason and teaching o Practical: from imitation or habit  Do not come naturally  “We are made perfect by habit”  Said to be inferior because they are involved in business, politics and military activities and they do not depend on leisure = an unhappy life o Practical wisdom: reason and habit helps us discern what is good (morally and physically)  Originates from intellectual virtues, but develops with practical virtues o “As practical knowledge, politics changes, depending on circumstances”—Aristotle behaviors and virtues are not the same through all of time, we should strive to be the best in our time (whatever that many look like) o Aristotle was not an idealist he believed in practical wisdom (things that can be learn from human behaviors in society and at home)  Theoretically minded philosophers: the power of law or politics are in their appeal to reason  Aristotle: habits and culture of a society are more important than the strict laws o Pleasure  Men choose what is pleasant and avoid what is painful  They should educate society in a system accommodating to this fact  Pleasure can only be measure by people who live virtuous lives  Even if certain virtues don’t bring us pleasure (such as justice or patience) we still have to practice them  Some activities are more pleasurable when they are new and less so when we are sick of them, but that doesn’t make them any less important  *** not the same as ‘what leisure produces’  *** true pleasure must be consistent with virtue  Pleasures are only secondary if they merely amuse or entertain us (seeking such things are childish)  We choose virtues because we have to and we choose pleasures because we want to o “Happiness should be consistent with the highest virtue”  Aka contemplation (particularly philosophical contemplation)  An intellectual virtue  It is self-sufficient  The higher service of practical virtues (what they strive to make them virtuous) o Practical virtues are still necessary to our human life o People are so caught up in work and politics we fail to promote leisure and peace = unhappy life  Aristotle blames the government for people not being about to enjoy leisure or peace  President John Adams restates this in 1780  We need to train not only for war, but for peace and prosperity  Presses them to musical education—music is imitations of characters o Causes feelings to move—it is a pleasure  Shapes our character and pushes us to act virtuously  Same goes for drama, theater, and poetry (THE LIBERAL ARTS) o Practical virtue


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