World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present (318L) Week 4 Notes
World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present (318L) Week 4 Notes ARC 318L
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luca Tomescu on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARC 318L at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Richard Cleary in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present in Architecture at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present Tuesday, September 20, 2016 Iron, Steel, and Concrete New materials: Iron and Concrete o Pantheon in Paris by Soufflot (1750s) Classical building with Gothic influence; represents a long continuum going back through European history Required its builder to understand the nature of arches This building is interesting because it used IRON System of wrought iron clamps and ties reinforcing the long spans in the pediment and stabilizing portico columns Used in a secondary structural role Iron was used in the Medieval and Antiquity, but this Pantheon has a much greater use of iron Types of Iron o Cast Iron Used as a mass-produced structural material in the 19 century Poured into molds High carbon content: strong but brittle Best used in compression (columns) Drilled connections and riveting can cause cracking o Wrought Iron Long history as a secondary structural material (like clamps) and for ornament (like wrought iron balcony railings) Mass production techniques developed in the 19 century enabled its use as a primary structural material Much more malleable, think of a black smith Rolled into bars, rods, and angles Strong in both compression and tension (can be used for columns and beams) Can be drilled, riveted, welded, and reworked (as by black smiths) Production is labor intensive compared to cast iron (considerably more expensive) o Steel Limited architectural use until the mid-19 century when new methods of production made it cost-effective for structural applications By early 20 century, it had mostly replaced cast iron Usually rolled but can be cast Lower carbon content than cast iron but higher than wrought iron; ductile Strong in compression and tension Can be drilled, riveted, and welded Quality can be controlled precisely The Bessemer process was among the mass-production techniques developed in the mid-19 century Iron Production o New, more efficient techniques of production developed over time o Stanley Mill in Gloucester, UK (1811) cloth mill Brick and iron construction reduced risk of catastrophic fire Exterior would remain brick like before, but interior was changed from stone to iron Royal Pavilion in Brighton, England by John Nash (1818-1823) Very slender cast iron columns in the kitchen o The first public railway in GB opened in 1825 o By 1850s, the rail network was nationwide o This drove the production of iron rails Architectural used of iron were sneaking in around the primary use in railroads o Euston Station was the original train shed for the London and Birmingham Railway designed by engineer Charles Fox, 1837 Cast iron columns, wrought iron tie rods Entrance to the station designed by Philip Hardwick, 1837 Train side didn’t need to look nice, but the city side was recognized as a piece of monumental architecture Initial image was to make the station fit into the normal architecture of the time (Neoclassical) Integration of Iron o Viollet-le-Duc: Study for a building with masonry, cast and wrought iron, and a glass canopy, drawn in 1860s o Europeans (and Americans by extension) associated certain materials with certain uses The hierarchy back then in descending order: stonemasonry, brick masonry, wood Where would iron, steel, and concrete fit into there? o Library of Ste. Genevieve by Henri Labrouste (1845-1851) Was in a prominent position facing the Pantheon Created a load-bearing stonemasonry structure Books were stored in the ground floor and the reading room was upstairs Decided to use cast iron in the reading room to create an unobstructed open space The building as a whole was deemed as successful at the time Beautiful façade and elegant interior o University Museum in Oxford, England built by Deane & Woodward (a Dublin firm), (1855-1860) Central court of the building has cast iron columns supporting a high roof of glass and iron Possessed a likeness to Gothic architecture Had a mixed response Critics said that this was just an appropriation of Gothic style to new materials o Crystal Palace in London built by Joseph Paxton and others (1851) Site of the first world’s fair – the Great Exhibition World’s fair was a huge opportunity for industrial producers to show off and advertise their products Wanted to create a huge, uninhibited open space Was only meant to be temporary Built very quickly, in the heart of the city in the middle of a park Brick or stone would take too long and cost too much Solution was lightweight architecture, mostly the first generation of greenhouses (called Stoves) Joseph Paxton designed the Great Stove for the gardens at Chatsworth, 1838 Crystal Palace built with materials that people were unfamiliar with Fabrication and construction of the Crystal Palace was led by Charles Fox and his firm, Fox and Henderson They were one of the leaders in the early use of iron Conceived as a building of mass production, an industrial product Standardized components Off-site fabrication Just in time delivery Prior to this, every piece of architecture was made to be unique Color scheme of interior based on the play of primary red, blue, and yellow was devised by the architect and color theorist Owen Jones o Portable Iron House in Melbourne, Australia (1855) Prefabricated, corrugated wrought iron buildings could be ordered from catalogs in England o Take-aways from iron What to do with this material? What is its place in the architectural world? Concrete o Composed of cement, sand, and course aggregates mixed with water o Portland cement, developed in the early 19 century consists primarily of calcium oxide (lime), silicon dioxide, and iron or aluminum oxides o Rome: Pantheon dome (117 CE) uses natural cements Mass concrete (no reinforcements) is strong in compression o Concrete (unreinforced) used to stabilize the embankment and as a raft supporting the foundation of the London Parliament o St. Mary’s Church in Suffolk, UK Construction includes unreinforced concrete and concrete block (tower) o A leading innovator in reinforced-concrete construction was Francois Hennebique who acquired a number of patents in the 1890s Reinforced concrete: metal bars embedded in concrete improve tensile strength o Villa for Baron Empain in Heliopolis, Egypt built by Alexandre Marcel, under license from Hennebique (1907-1911) Reinforced concrete structure made to emulate southeast Asian architecture o Apartment building in Paris (25bis rue Franklin) built under a Hennebique license (1903-1904) o Unity Temple by Frank Lloyd Wright in Oak Park (1905-1909) Non-traditional church appears as a great mass with some openings Hard to tell what it’s made of, but it’s reinforced concrete Wright explored the qualities of mass concrete; separate the interior from the outside world Wright uses concrete as a protective shell o Church of Notre Dame in Le Raincy, France built by A. & G. Perret (1922) Looks like a traditional church from a distance Easy to tell how the building supports itself In one aspect, it’s compatible with notions of traditional churches Narrow concrete columns hold up the roof, allowing the walls to not have to partake much in supporting the building Traditional as a church but celebrating reinforced concrete as a framing material Perret bros use concrete as a framework o Things to consider: What do we do with new materials? What are their properties? Are the materials conceptually replacing old ones? Or do the materials lead to a different point of departure for a building? Thursday, September 22, 2016 Skyscrapers London: Crystal Palace, Joseph Paxton and other, 1851 o Housed 1 World’s Fair o Was very bizarre and inspired awe with its unique construction o New York: Crystal Palace, George Carstensen and Charles Gildemeister, 1853 One of the buildings inspired completely by the London Crystal Palaca Made to hold exhibitions In its inaugural exhibition, Elisha Otis demonstrated his safety elevator in 1853 Subject of much gaping and awe; a spectacle of a building The “fireproof” structure burned down in half in hour, 1858 Ad for corrugated wrought iron buildings by Hemmings Company, Bristol, England, 1853 o Allowed people to flat pack a town and ship it to the farthest reaches of the world There was high demand for this Catalog pages of cast iron facades sold by Daniel Badger’s Architectural Iron Works, 1856 o Badger and other iron manufacturers figured out that there was an opportunity to meet demand around America and the world o They could assemble a skilled crew and create molds for casting iron These would be used for fabrication of iron facades of buildings o New York: Haughwout Building, J.P Gaynor, 1857 The store on the ground floor sold housewares Rise of more general stores and department stores Façade had to be ice to attract customers Cast iron facades produced by the Daniel Badger Co. First use of Otis’s passenger elevator 4-6 stories was the maximum height that most people would be willing to walk up Compared to London and Paris, NY was the only city with skyscrapers o Skyscrapers originated in the US o All 3 cities had the same technologies, same material skill, and same technical engineering skill Yet only the US built them for a while. Why? Economic state Acceptable building styles Population density Age of cities Livable surface area Building regulations o Very restrictive in terms of buildings heights o Governments reluctant to change their regulations o Doctrine of Ancient Lights: buildings weren’t allowed to cast deep shadows on already existing buildings U.S. got away with this quickly because it restricted the construction of property Chicago: Home Insurance Company Building, William LeBaron Jenney, 1884 o Considered one of the first skyscrapers; tall for its time o Conservative-looking stone and brick construction o Had cast iron columns that supported wrought iron beams; also brick for load- bearing and fireproofing Chicago: The Fair Store, William LeBaron Jenney, 1890 o Steel frame construction; elements bolted together and covered with fireproofing material o Stable and inherently resistant to any wind load, partially because it was still quite low Chicago: Reliance Building, Charles Atwood/Daniel Burnham, 1894 o Curtain wall (exterior wall and glazing are attached to the frame and are NOT load-bearing o The skin of this building is glass an terra cotta (ceramic clay) Tall building construction challenges: o Wind bracing Tower-like buildings were significantly affected by the wind Shear force at right angles to the force of the building against the ground Engineers tested many solutions to the wind o Connections Should pieces of the frame shift slightly as loads are applied or be completely stiff How to make connections safe and secure Challenging with cast iron because the holes had to be cast Wrought iron more forgiving o How to maintain constant pressure when bolting o Riveting comes out as a connection technique o Foundations Ideal condition: Bedrock is fairly accessible without going too deep Building can simple rest on top of this rock of the Earth Chicago wanted to be a marsh, and bedrock was very far down Engineers in Chicago designed “rafts” that distributed the weight of sky scrapers Iron frame construction was the most popular, but reinforced concrete was also existent o Cincinnati, OH: Ingalls Building, 1903 Ernest Ransome reinforced concrete system Austin’s first skyscraper o Scarborough Building, Sanguinet & Staat, architects (Fort Worth), 1910 New York: o Many different approaches to the visual character and expression of skyscrapers o New York World Building, George Post, 1890 Dome: alludes to capitol, Renaissance High style expressive themes: Renaissance columns o Woolworth Building, Cass Gilbert, 1910-1913 Interpretation of Gothic form: verticality o Even skyscrapers can draw on historicism “The White House” in Rotterdam (Netherlands) was the tallest office building in Europe for many years; load-bearing brick exterior wall, partial iron framing internally o Investors wants “A grand office building in the American spirit” o Possibly based on an unrealized project for the San Francisco Examiner building, 1890 o Back and forth of ideas between America and Europe Europeans were fascinated with skyscrapers even though they couldn’t build them Moving away from historicism o St. Louis: Wainwright Building, Adler & Sullivan, 1890 Small patterns not akin to any particular style Didn’t like the layer system because it detracted from a building’s loftiness Emphasized vertical elements o Chicago: Reliance Building, Charles Atwood/Daniel Burnham, 1894 Terra Cotta elements symbolize a simple Classical rosette pattern Doesn’t really make you think of Classicism Atwood wanted to rethink design and not base it on the past Treated skyscraper as a series of layers on top of each other Skyscraper Shapes o Maximizing rentable area was key to achieving profitability o Skyscrapers were always built to make money Charge the max amount of rent for the max area possible o Elevators clustered in the middle, where rentability was lowest o Maximized offices that could receive daylight Daylight was the primary light source; electrical lighting was only supplementary o Lot size New York had smaller, skinnier lots, so buildings were built to be taller Chicago had larger lots, which allowed for wider buildings o Building regulation 1916: NYC passed nation’s 1 zoning code Required set-backs at specified heights for tall buildings to allow more daylight to reach the streets o New York: Empire State Building, Shreve, Lamb and Harmon (architects), 1930- 1931 102 floors completed in 410 days o New York: Seagram Building, 1954-1958 By creating a plaza in front, the building didn’t have to have setbacks Became a common theme in skyscraper construction Change to sealed windows air quality dependent on mechanical air conditioning Increasingly common after WWII Fluorescent lighting became standard in commercial architecture after WWII Price had gone down enough and light quality was good o Chicago: John Hancock Center, Fazlur Khan, 1965-1970 There was a practical height at which it wasn’t affordable to build anymore Then Fazlur created the Braced tube structural system Handled wind loads and gravity loads with giant diagonal beams Allowed for more floor space and less use of steel overall 100 stories, mixed use: commercial, office, and residential with parking Today o Chicago: Aquz, Jeanne Gang, 2007-2009 Expressive system of expansive cantilevers and beautifully shaped concrete Directs wind around the building o Bangkok: MahaNakhon, Ole Scheeren, 2011-2016 Breakdown of the mass of the tower Rotated spiral of cube-like elements going around the building
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