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Cengage Ch.4

by: Rachel Rusnak

Cengage Ch.4 104

Rachel Rusnak
GPA 3.2

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notes from the reading on "Finding Resources through Secondary Research".
Composing Research
Mr. Young
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Rusnak on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 104 at Ball State University taught by Mr. Young in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Composing Research in English at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
English 104 Cengage Ch.4 1. Conducting Research. a. Internet search engine is not always the best. Try: i. Reflect on what you already know, ii. Decide on what kind of information you need, 1. Primary research- going straight to the resource to answer your research question. a. Resource itself must be the primary object of study. b. The researcher is the one collecting the data, not filtered through any other person. 2. Secondary research- deals with resources provided by someone else; your knowledge and education of the primary resource to answer your research question is mediated through other author(s). iii. Narrow your research results by developing specific terms, iv. Plan where to look for that information. b. The type of information you will be partially determined by your research question, your perception of your audience, and your purpose for writing. 2. Locating Resources. a. Subtle differences in meaning might impact your search results. i. That initial list of key words from your research question, develop a larger list of search terms becomes a relatively easy process. 1. Methods for key words: a. Carefully acknowledge the literal difference between the words in your research question. b. Adding modifying phrase to your key word is the research question. c. Identify the alternative phrases people use when talking about your subject. d. Distinguish why one person refers to your topic using one phrase, and another person uses a different phrase. b. Web dictionaries can be useful starting points for locating online resources dealing with your research topic. i. They do not list links based on key words. ii. They list based on categories and subcategories. 3. Types of Resources. a. 2 characteristics: i. How resources change over time. 1. Static- Change the least; “published” once. a. Books. i. Most authoritative and desirable resource. ii. Compile a great deal of information into one publication. English 104 iii. Not ideal for cutting-edge research on current issues. b. Websites. i. Some of the most up-to-date information. 1. Sponsored organizations. 2. Dig for information about the website. ii. Extensions: 1. .gov- government-sponsored. 2. .edu- education institution. 3. .org- nonprofit organization. 4. .com- commercial website; corporate or personal. c. Audio and Video Files. i. Some search engines provide audio- and video-specific searches or result filter options. ii. Podcasts. 1. Have more than one episode or instalment. 2. Syndicated- released over time and under the same general title. a. Periodicals. i. Newspapers, magazines, academic and trade journals, and other publications released “periodically”. 1. Report on research others have done. 2. Different standards for research opportunity for different audiences. b. Blogs and RSS (Really Simple Syndication) Files. i. Public, online journals. ii. Particular subject or wide range of topics. 3. Dynamic- never permanently published in a final form. a. Credibility and authority of the resource should be measured by looking at the entire context of the source- including revisions and reviews. b. Email lists and Newsgroups. i. Least changeable. c. Social Networking Sites. i. Communicate on web-based environment. d. Online Communities. i. Asynchronous- people do not interact at the same time. ii. Synchronous- instantly respond at the same time as someone else. 1. Observing the environment or meeting individuals in the environment to talk about your research topic. e. Wikis. English 104 i. Used for collaborative writing and development. 1. Not all are public. f. Performances ad Broadcasts. i. Manuscript is the same, the audience is different, and the audience could affect the performance as well. ii. How resources are reviewed. 1. Edited- reviews the resources and provides suggestions for revision. 2. Peer reviewed- approved by peers in the same profession of the author. 3. Self-published- author publishes the resource. b. Important to remember, it is essential to use clear evaluative criteria when you are looking at any resource. i. Consider looking through and/or using the various media and digital resources. 4. Developing a Research Plan. a. Includes a detailed list of the type pf information you need to find. b. Good research is a systematic study of a specific topic.


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