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Anatomy & Physiology - Integumentary Systems

by: Courtney Luber

Anatomy & Physiology - Integumentary Systems 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 > Anatomy Physiology Integumentary Systems
Courtney Luber

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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture on Integumentary systems (9/20 & 9/22)
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
John R Cummings
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
Integumentary Systems  Organ system o Group of organs that operate collectively to perform specialized functions o Function is dependent of organs that make it up  Cells  tissues  organs  Integumentary system o Skin o Skin derivatives  Hair  Nails  Glands  Receptors  Skin factoids *not on test* o Covers entire body  Dry, composed of epithelial tissue o Weighs 9-11 pounds o Accounts for 7% of total body mass o Has surface area of 1.2-2.2 square meters o Varies in thickness from 1.5-4.0 mm  Thinnest part on head  Thickest part on sole of feet  depends on friction  Dermatology – study of skin  Regions o Epidermis – skin  Stratified squamous epithelial tissue  Protection  Outer skin layer/exposed to outside  Avascular – no blood vessels o Dermis – skin  Deep to the epidermis  Compromised of fibrous connective tissue  Dense irregular, areolar, etc  Composed of at least 2 different types  Has blood vessels – vascularized o Hypodermis – beneath the skin  Composed of adipose tissue  Protection of things underneath skin  Covers muscle underneath skin  Changes as we age  Thickness increases  more & more fat stored  Amount of fibers decreases  lose elasticity  Epidermal cells o Keratinocytes  Make up majority of epidermis  Cell that produces keratin  Undergo keratinization  produces keratin, builds up in cell, gets rid of organelles, cell dies  Deep cells replicate which pushes other cells toward surface  Cells at the top die and are sloughed off  Takes about 2 weeks  Our entire epidermis is replaced every 25-45 days  Yellow cells in powerpoint picture  Most of the cells in the epidermis o Melanocytes  Melanin producing cells  Grey in powerpoint picture  Few  Melanin is a pigment  coloration molecule  In deep layers  Melanin causes darkening of the skin  as we tan, we increase the amount of melanin o Langerhan’s cell  Blue in powerpoint picture  Produced in bone marrow  Where blood is produced  White blood cells provide an immune function for us  Provides an immune function for the skin  Biochemical protection\ o Merkel cells  Purple in powerpoint picture  Deep in the epidermis at the very bottom layer  Border between epidermis and dermis  Special sensory receptor cells  Respond to light touch  i.e. bottom of forearm; back of neck  epidermal layers (thin skin) o stratum basale  deepest layer  “basal” or “bottom” - latin  Function: maintain ability to go through mitosis and replicate; germ cells  single layer of cells  also called “stratum germinatibum” o stratum spinosum  several layers thick  “prickly” – latin  Function: cumulating keratin proteins; have a web-like system of intermediate filaments inside their cells which attach to desmosomes  Resists things like friction  Cells shrink as they age  As they shrink, desmosomes stay attached which makes them look prickly o Stratum granulosum  3-5 layers of cells  “granular layer” – latin  Function: cells contain granuals  produces vesicle stored substances  Represents last of the living cells  Types of granuals  Keratohyaline granual – contain keratin (protection)  Lamellated granual – contain glycolipids (functions like a water-proofer  helps prevent loss of water from inside our bodies) o Stratum corneum  “horn” – latin  20-30 layers of dead cells  Function: provides protection  Epidermal layers (thick skin) o Stratum lucidum  “clear” – latin  Only found where skin is really thick/high friction areas  i.e. palms of hands, soles of feet  dermal layers o papillary  composed of areolar connective tissue  holds dermis to epidermis o reticular  composed of dense irregular connective tissue  dermal papillae – where the dermis extends up above onto the epidermis; irregularities  development of integument o epidermis = ectoderm o dermis = mesoderm o hypoderm = mesoderm  Skin color o determined by pigments  melanin  epidermal pigment  gives us dark coloration  cells respond to UV radiation by producing melanin o enzyme tyrosinase is produced  catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine (amino acid) to melanin  differences in race  carotene  dermal pigment  results in yellow/orange colors  Asian populations  Hemoglobin  Blood pigment  Pinkish-white look comes from seeing hemoglobin through outer skin  Surface features o Ridges  Ridges on epidermis due to ridges on dermis  Determined genetically  no two people have the same ridges  gives our fingers and toes better grip  increase friction  ridges hold oils on skin  when we touch something, leaves fingerprint o grooves  appear all over the surface of our body  make “diamonds”  hair grows out of intersection of grooves  these grooves are left over from when we had scales on the surface of our body – evolution  skin appendages o sudoriferous glands  sweat glands  eccrine  cover most of the surface of our body  function throughout life  main function is thermoregulation  apocrine  found in only high saturation areas  between legs, under arms, etc  don’t begin functioning until puberty  not involved in thermoregulation o trigger related to hormones  in high friction areas  provides lubrication which allows things to slide past each other  secretions from these glands are odorless  bacteria feed on these secretions and produce a product that has an odor  ceruminous  found in ear canal  production of cerumen  wax  modified apocrine gland  secretion is waxy & thick  protects our inner ear o traps foreign things o also a sound protectant  mammary  produce modified sweat  sweat is rich with proteins and fats and lactose  milk  breast milk o sebaceous glands  produce sebum  oil  hair follicles; oil coats hair and keeps it from being brittle  softens and lubricates both hair and skin  helps to prevent water loss so we don’t dehydrate  things like pathogens get trapped in oil  sebum has bactericidal properties  will kill bacteria  respond to hormonal secretions  androgens (testosterone)  lots of oily production when boys hit puberty o nails  scale-like modifications of epidermis  protect the ends of our fingers and toes  toes would split without nails  nail parts  nail body – part we see when we look at our nails  free edge – distal portion; part we snip back  lanula – proximal edge  nail fold – all of the skin that surrounds the nail body  nail bed – skin underneath nail body  nail matrix – contains cells that are undergoing division; pushes old cells forward; proximal end of nail body; actively grows  eponychium – tissue that covers nail matrix  hyponichium – tissue that covers free edge o hair  scale-like appendage  functions:  allows us to sense things  acts as a cushion – protects against physical trauma  insulator – prevents loss of heat  filter – protects us against UV radiation; hair in nose prevents outside things from getting in  hair structure:  shaft – part we can see; above skin  root – part we can’t see; underneath skin  follicle – skin parts that surround the root  shaft layers:  medulla – middle portion  cortex – surrounds medulla; dark circles represent pigment (melanin & theomelanin)  cuticle – outer layer of dead, stacked cells  structure of hair follicle:  external root sheath – made up of connective tissue  internal root sheath – epidermal; immediately surrounds root; hair growth occurs from here  bulb – base  papilla – indentation in bulb  arrector pili – smooth muscle; involuntary; if we get cold, this contracts and pulls on the base of the hair follicle  causes hair to stand up; keeps us from losing heat; also responds to excitement  touch sensitive nerve endings at base of hair follicle  functions of integument o protection  biological, chemical, mechanical o regulation of body temperature  skin contains sweat glands which keep us cool and hair which keeps us warm o sensation  merkel’s discs o metabolic functions  skin produces inactive form of vitamin D  without vitamin D, we can’t absorb calcium; also important in normal immune function o maintains blood reservoir  redirects blood to active tissues  i.e. when working out o excretion  can get rid of waste products when we sweat  primarily nitrogenous from breakdown of proteins  Tactile sensors o Merkel’s discs  Very deep in stratum spinosum  Epidermal receptor  Basically at dermis border but on epidermal side  Respond to light touch o Meissner’s corpuscles  Dermal papillae  On border; but dermal side  Touch sensitive nerve endings that are activated by light touch o Pacinian corpuscles  Deep in dermis  Respond to deep pressure  Adapt very rapidly  Burn o German  Brennen – to consume by fire o Definition – tissue damage caused by intense heat, electricity, radiation, or chemicals that results in protein denaturation o Can lead to cell death o More severe burn  more significant side effects o Dehydration and loss of electrolytes is major concern o Systematic effects:  Water loss  Bacterial infection  Shock – BP issue  Destroys blood vessels – reduces blood flow  Decreased urinary output and kidney failure  Burn classification o First degree  Any burn that results in redness, swelling, and pain  Only partial thickness burn – only portion of skin  most superficial layers  Pain receptors in skin are activated  Will heal on own w/o intervention is 2-3 days  Sun, chemicals, steam, etc cause this o Second degree  Redness, swelling, pain & blisters  Partial thickness burn  Epidermis and parts of upper dermis  Heal on own w/o intervention  3-4 weeks to heal o Third degree  Full thickness burns  Skin is charred  Skin has lost entire function because it is completely damaged  No pain  sensory receptors are destroyed  When you get a third degree burn, you will also have first and second most likely which do cause pain  Does not heal  tissue graft  Skin disorders/abnormalities o Acne  Inflammation of sebaceous glands  Staph infection of sebaceous glands  Bacteria feed on oils  Antibiotics are best  Acne is prevalent in pubescent boys o Lupus  Autoimmune disease  Immune system attacks healthy part of body – immune system attacks skin in lupus  Get lesions or markings on skin  Butterfly rash across face is indicative  Primarily post-pubescent female issue o Psoriasis  Itchy, scaly skin  Research suggests that it is also an autoimmune disease  Something triggers these reactions  Trauma – traumatic damage to skin  Bacterial infection (of any part of body)  Hormonal changes  Stress  Photo therapy – putting someone in front of sun lamps  Also, steroidal drugs (things that shut off immune system) o Decubitus ulcers (bed sores)  Open sores  Constant interruption of blood flow  Immobile patients  Rotting flesh  produces odor  Could also get this by having a cast too tight  Happens when blood flow is restricted o Vitiligo  Pigment disorder  Patchy distribution of melanocytes  Lack of pigment in some places of skin  Probably autoimmune  Looks like a healed burn, but just an absence of pigment o Albinism  Body can’t make any pigment at all  Inherited condition  genetic  No gene that allows for the production of tyrosinase  Person looks really pink/white, eyes are bright red, hair is white o Freckles  Patchy concentration of melanocytes  Opposite of vitiligo  More common in fair skinned people  Common in redheads because red hair and fair skin have a genetic component  Irish o Birthmarks  Born with pigmented area of skin  Cause is unknown  Dense collection of dermal blood vesicles in a particular spot


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