Anatomy & Physiology - Integumentary Systems
Anatomy & Physiology - Integumentary Systems 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Integumentary Systems Organ system o Group of organs that operate collectively to perform specialized functions o Function is dependent of organs that make it up Cells tissues organs Integumentary system o Skin o Skin derivatives Hair Nails Glands Receptors Skin factoids *not on test* o Covers entire body Dry, composed of epithelial tissue o Weighs 9-11 pounds o Accounts for 7% of total body mass o Has surface area of 1.2-2.2 square meters o Varies in thickness from 1.5-4.0 mm Thinnest part on head Thickest part on sole of feet depends on friction Dermatology – study of skin Regions o Epidermis – skin Stratified squamous epithelial tissue Protection Outer skin layer/exposed to outside Avascular – no blood vessels o Dermis – skin Deep to the epidermis Compromised of fibrous connective tissue Dense irregular, areolar, etc Composed of at least 2 different types Has blood vessels – vascularized o Hypodermis – beneath the skin Composed of adipose tissue Protection of things underneath skin Covers muscle underneath skin Changes as we age Thickness increases more & more fat stored Amount of fibers decreases lose elasticity Epidermal cells o Keratinocytes Make up majority of epidermis Cell that produces keratin Undergo keratinization produces keratin, builds up in cell, gets rid of organelles, cell dies Deep cells replicate which pushes other cells toward surface Cells at the top die and are sloughed off Takes about 2 weeks Our entire epidermis is replaced every 25-45 days Yellow cells in powerpoint picture Most of the cells in the epidermis o Melanocytes Melanin producing cells Grey in powerpoint picture Few Melanin is a pigment coloration molecule In deep layers Melanin causes darkening of the skin as we tan, we increase the amount of melanin o Langerhan’s cell Blue in powerpoint picture Produced in bone marrow Where blood is produced White blood cells provide an immune function for us Provides an immune function for the skin Biochemical protection\ o Merkel cells Purple in powerpoint picture Deep in the epidermis at the very bottom layer Border between epidermis and dermis Special sensory receptor cells Respond to light touch i.e. bottom of forearm; back of neck epidermal layers (thin skin) o stratum basale deepest layer “basal” or “bottom” - latin Function: maintain ability to go through mitosis and replicate; germ cells single layer of cells also called “stratum germinatibum” o stratum spinosum several layers thick “prickly” – latin Function: cumulating keratin proteins; have a web-like system of intermediate filaments inside their cells which attach to desmosomes Resists things like friction Cells shrink as they age As they shrink, desmosomes stay attached which makes them look prickly o Stratum granulosum 3-5 layers of cells “granular layer” – latin Function: cells contain granuals produces vesicle stored substances Represents last of the living cells Types of granuals Keratohyaline granual – contain keratin (protection) Lamellated granual – contain glycolipids (functions like a water-proofer helps prevent loss of water from inside our bodies) o Stratum corneum “horn” – latin 20-30 layers of dead cells Function: provides protection Epidermal layers (thick skin) o Stratum lucidum “clear” – latin Only found where skin is really thick/high friction areas i.e. palms of hands, soles of feet dermal layers o papillary composed of areolar connective tissue holds dermis to epidermis o reticular composed of dense irregular connective tissue dermal papillae – where the dermis extends up above onto the epidermis; irregularities development of integument o epidermis = ectoderm o dermis = mesoderm o hypoderm = mesoderm Skin color o determined by pigments melanin epidermal pigment gives us dark coloration cells respond to UV radiation by producing melanin o enzyme tyrosinase is produced catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine (amino acid) to melanin differences in race carotene dermal pigment results in yellow/orange colors Asian populations Hemoglobin Blood pigment Pinkish-white look comes from seeing hemoglobin through outer skin Surface features o Ridges Ridges on epidermis due to ridges on dermis Determined genetically no two people have the same ridges gives our fingers and toes better grip increase friction ridges hold oils on skin when we touch something, leaves fingerprint o grooves appear all over the surface of our body make “diamonds” hair grows out of intersection of grooves these grooves are left over from when we had scales on the surface of our body – evolution skin appendages o sudoriferous glands sweat glands eccrine cover most of the surface of our body function throughout life main function is thermoregulation apocrine found in only high saturation areas between legs, under arms, etc don’t begin functioning until puberty not involved in thermoregulation o trigger related to hormones in high friction areas provides lubrication which allows things to slide past each other secretions from these glands are odorless bacteria feed on these secretions and produce a product that has an odor ceruminous found in ear canal production of cerumen wax modified apocrine gland secretion is waxy & thick protects our inner ear o traps foreign things o also a sound protectant mammary produce modified sweat sweat is rich with proteins and fats and lactose milk breast milk o sebaceous glands produce sebum oil hair follicles; oil coats hair and keeps it from being brittle softens and lubricates both hair and skin helps to prevent water loss so we don’t dehydrate things like pathogens get trapped in oil sebum has bactericidal properties will kill bacteria respond to hormonal secretions androgens (testosterone) lots of oily production when boys hit puberty o nails scale-like modifications of epidermis protect the ends of our fingers and toes toes would split without nails nail parts nail body – part we see when we look at our nails free edge – distal portion; part we snip back lanula – proximal edge nail fold – all of the skin that surrounds the nail body nail bed – skin underneath nail body nail matrix – contains cells that are undergoing division; pushes old cells forward; proximal end of nail body; actively grows eponychium – tissue that covers nail matrix hyponichium – tissue that covers free edge o hair scale-like appendage functions: allows us to sense things acts as a cushion – protects against physical trauma insulator – prevents loss of heat filter – protects us against UV radiation; hair in nose prevents outside things from getting in hair structure: shaft – part we can see; above skin root – part we can’t see; underneath skin follicle – skin parts that surround the root shaft layers: medulla – middle portion cortex – surrounds medulla; dark circles represent pigment (melanin & theomelanin) cuticle – outer layer of dead, stacked cells structure of hair follicle: external root sheath – made up of connective tissue internal root sheath – epidermal; immediately surrounds root; hair growth occurs from here bulb – base papilla – indentation in bulb arrector pili – smooth muscle; involuntary; if we get cold, this contracts and pulls on the base of the hair follicle causes hair to stand up; keeps us from losing heat; also responds to excitement touch sensitive nerve endings at base of hair follicle functions of integument o protection biological, chemical, mechanical o regulation of body temperature skin contains sweat glands which keep us cool and hair which keeps us warm o sensation merkel’s discs o metabolic functions skin produces inactive form of vitamin D without vitamin D, we can’t absorb calcium; also important in normal immune function o maintains blood reservoir redirects blood to active tissues i.e. when working out o excretion can get rid of waste products when we sweat primarily nitrogenous from breakdown of proteins Tactile sensors o Merkel’s discs Very deep in stratum spinosum Epidermal receptor Basically at dermis border but on epidermal side Respond to light touch o Meissner’s corpuscles Dermal papillae On border; but dermal side Touch sensitive nerve endings that are activated by light touch o Pacinian corpuscles Deep in dermis Respond to deep pressure Adapt very rapidly Burn o German Brennen – to consume by fire o Definition – tissue damage caused by intense heat, electricity, radiation, or chemicals that results in protein denaturation o Can lead to cell death o More severe burn more significant side effects o Dehydration and loss of electrolytes is major concern o Systematic effects: Water loss Bacterial infection Shock – BP issue Destroys blood vessels – reduces blood flow Decreased urinary output and kidney failure Burn classification o First degree Any burn that results in redness, swelling, and pain Only partial thickness burn – only portion of skin most superficial layers Pain receptors in skin are activated Will heal on own w/o intervention is 2-3 days Sun, chemicals, steam, etc cause this o Second degree Redness, swelling, pain & blisters Partial thickness burn Epidermis and parts of upper dermis Heal on own w/o intervention 3-4 weeks to heal o Third degree Full thickness burns Skin is charred Skin has lost entire function because it is completely damaged No pain sensory receptors are destroyed When you get a third degree burn, you will also have first and second most likely which do cause pain Does not heal tissue graft Skin disorders/abnormalities o Acne Inflammation of sebaceous glands Staph infection of sebaceous glands Bacteria feed on oils Antibiotics are best Acne is prevalent in pubescent boys o Lupus Autoimmune disease Immune system attacks healthy part of body – immune system attacks skin in lupus Get lesions or markings on skin Butterfly rash across face is indicative Primarily post-pubescent female issue o Psoriasis Itchy, scaly skin Research suggests that it is also an autoimmune disease Something triggers these reactions Trauma – traumatic damage to skin Bacterial infection (of any part of body) Hormonal changes Stress Photo therapy – putting someone in front of sun lamps Also, steroidal drugs (things that shut off immune system) o Decubitus ulcers (bed sores) Open sores Constant interruption of blood flow Immobile patients Rotting flesh produces odor Could also get this by having a cast too tight Happens when blood flow is restricted o Vitiligo Pigment disorder Patchy distribution of melanocytes Lack of pigment in some places of skin Probably autoimmune Looks like a healed burn, but just an absence of pigment o Albinism Body can’t make any pigment at all Inherited condition genetic No gene that allows for the production of tyrosinase Person looks really pink/white, eyes are bright red, hair is white o Freckles Patchy concentration of melanocytes Opposite of vitiligo More common in fair skinned people Common in redheads because red hair and fair skin have a genetic component Irish o Birthmarks Born with pigmented area of skin Cause is unknown Dense collection of dermal blood vesicles in a particular spot
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