Psych 1101 Ch5 Notes
Psych 1101 Ch5 Notes Psyc 1101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hanna Notetaker on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psycology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Psych 1101 Ch5-Learning >Enduring change of behavior or thinking due to past experiences Three Types of Learning >Classical Conditioning: the association of two different stimuli >Operant Conditioning: connections made from behaviors and consequences >Observational Learning: watching and imitating the behavior of others Classical Conditioning >Unconditioned Stimulus (US) Unconditioned Response (UR) -Ex from Pavlov’s experiments: Present a dog food Dog salivates >Neutral Stimulus (NS) Unconditioned Response (UR) -Ex from Pavlov’s experiments: Ticking metronome Dog salivates Acquisition Phase >Unconditioned Stimulus + Neutral Stimulus Unconditioned Response Repeated pairing >Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Conditioned Response (CR) >Pavlov was one of the founders on the concept of conditioning. He experimented specifically on classical conditioning. >Generalization: a stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus causes a conditioned response >Discrimination: the ability to know the difference between conditioned stimulus and different stimuli >Extinction: association between conditioned stimulus and conditioned response goes away >Spontaneous Recovery: reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction >Classical conditioning is involuntary and is the repeated pairing of different stimuli Higher Order Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response Conditioned Stimulus + 2 Neutral Stimulus (NS2) Conditioned Response The Shaping of Behavior >Operant Conditioning: Behaviors/Voluntary actions are associated with their consequences -Voluntary -Repeated pairing of behaviors to their consequences The Law of Effect >If you are rewarded for a certain behavior, you are more likely to continue to do that behavior >Thorndike was one of the first scientists to study this law using a puzzle box for his experiments B.F. Skinner >Radical Behaviorist >One of the most influential psychologists of all time Learning Through Operant Conditioning >Shaping: the use of reinforcers to form a certain, complex behavior >Successive Approximations: rewarded for doing actions that get closer to desired behavior Reinforcement >Increase behavior -Positive Reinforcer: the addition of something good following a behavior -Negative Reinforcer: taking away something bad following a behavior ***The goal of reinforcement is to increase behavior/make a behavior more likely to occur*** Categories of Reinforcers >Primary Reinforcers: innate; satisfies biological needs >Secondary Reinforcers: do not satisfy biological needs; can come from primary reinforcers Reinforcement Schedules >Continuous Reinforcement: reinforcement is given every time following a behavior >Partial Reinforcement: reinforcement is given intermittently, not every time, following a behavior Partial Reinforcement >Number of Repetitions -Fixed-Ratio Schedule: behavior must be done a certain amount of time (predetermined) before receiving reinforcement -Variable-Ratio Schedule: amount of times a behavior must be done to receive reinforcement changes from trial to trial- average number of behaviors >Amount of Time -Fixed-Interval Schedule: behavior is reinforced after a certain amount of time/interval -Variable-Interval Schedule: behavior is reinforced after a certain interval- varies from trial to trial Punishment >Decrease behavior -Positive Punishment: the addition of something bad following bad behavior -Negative Punishment: taking away something good following bad behavior ***The goal of punishment is to either stop or decrease a behavior*** Observational Learning (Social Learning) >Watching and imitating the behavior of others >Bandura concluded that these 4 things need to be happening for observational learning to occur: 1. Pay attention 2. Remember 3. Be capable of performing 4. Be motivated >TV and other media can influence people’s behavior in positive or negative ways Latent Learning >Learning is done without awareness >No reinforcement >May not be evident until it is needed -Ex: A study was conducted where rats, separated into 3 groups, learned to navigate a maze -Group 1: Continuous reinforcement -Group 2: No reinforcement -Group 3: Reinforcement starts on Day 11- After day 11, the error rate was lower than those with continuous reinforcement
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