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Geography Week 6 Notes

by: Lilli Ames

Geography Week 6 Notes GR 1123

Lilli Ames
GPA 4.0

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Notes over South America and Europe
intro to world Geography
Christopher Nunley
Class Notes
geography, europe, South, America
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lilli Ames on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GR 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Christopher Nunley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see intro to world Geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
Monday, September 19, 2016 Into to World Geography South America Takeaways: - Four Human Geographic Regions • The Caribbean North (Plantation lifestyle) - Colombia: exports coffee and cocaine, cartels influence the government - Venezuela: close to 30 million people, largest waterfall, two main resources are highlands (medals and minerals) and lowlands (agriculture) - French Guiana: space industry • The Andes West - Peru: 30.4 million people (half are Amerindian), and has three geographical zones: Coast, Andes, and Rainforest - Ecuador: close to 15 million people, export oil, situated “on” the equator. - Galapagos Islands: very biodiverse - Bolivia: 90% illiteracy rate and no official language • The Southern Cone - Argentina: 41.3 million people, large grassland area (Pampas- like plains), 91% of population lives urban, and heavy influence on Italians and Germans - Chile: longest country (north to south) in World, mining is huge (in Andes), and lots of earthquakes (Ring of Fire) - Brazil: powerhouse of SA, tons of natural resources, and over 200 million people 1 Monday, September 19, 2016 Europe: - Population is 11% of the world - 42 countries in very small area - World War II drastically changed the layout of Europe - Technically is a peninsula of Asia - Highly urbanized - Germany has the largest population - High in latitude - Cultural diversity: • 49 different languages • 11 major Indo-European families • Mostly Christian roots but Islam is rising in the East • Rich in the West, poor in the East (Slavic Nations) - Economies in Europe: • Poorest country is Moldova ($3,500 per year on average) • Richest country is Luxembourg ($109,000 per year on average) - Economies and Political networks • Complimentary: excess products and goods can be shared with others within the realm given the need • Transferability: very easy to move goods via transport networks and infrastructure - Spatial area of Europe: • About 60% the size of the United States • But contains twice the amount of people (600 million) - Climate (influenced by the Gulf Stream): 2 Monday, September 19, 2016 • Mostly mild climate types • Generally temperate forests • Similar to most of the climate in the eastern U.S. - Physical Geographic Regions: • Central Uplands - “Heart of Europe” • Alpine Mountains - Pyrenees to the Balkan Mtns. • Western Uplands - Very old geographically • North European Lowlands - Culturally diverse and complex - After the last ice age, people started to move into Europe (from Africa and Asia) AGES: - Neolithic: simple stone tools, spears, fire, domestication of animals, • 10,000 BC - Copper: simple shields, modest swords, axes, and armor • Around 5,000 BC - Bronze: sailing, trade, Stonehenge constructed, and developed writing • Around 3,000 BC - Iron: started using iron and then steel • Around 1,200 BC to AD - Ancient Greece • Rise of science, philosophy, government, art, formal writing, and mathematics 3 Monday, September 19, 2016 • origins of western government • Ancient Greece was a “city-state” in which a city has its own government and which it controls the surrounding territory to form an independent state - Athens and Sparta are examples in the past - Roman Empire • Created urban areas and trade routes • Constructed aqueducts, roads, coliseums, buildings with plumbing, and a standard currency • Empire collapsed by the 5th century AD - “Dark” or “Middle” Ages • Tribes of German and Slavic people from Asia, the Middle East, and Africa moved into Europe • This began the rise of religion and squashed science, arts, and philosophy • Feudal System in which a well defined hierarchy existed - The Church VS Galileo • The church believed in a geocentric model in which the sun had planets rotating around it and the Earth was not moving • Galileo was a proponent of heliocentric model in which the sun was at the center of the universe • In 1633 he was convicted for his scientific beliefs; in return tortured to detest his beliefs Was given house arrest for the remainder of his life • - European Crusades • Began in 1095 when armies of Christians from Western Europe went to was with the Muslim world This was Pope Urban II’s request • • Christians went to recover the “holy land” (Jerusalem) • Lasted through the 13th century 4 Monday, September 19, 2016 Europe Takeaways: - Population of 600 million (11% of the world) - 42 countries is a relatively small area - Vast cultural diversity • 49 different languages • Christianity is predominant but Islam is growing - West is rich, East is poor (economic disparity) - Mild and moist climate for latitude due to Gulf Stream - Neolithic Age: simple stone tools around 10,000 BC - Copper Age: simple shields and basic armor around 5,000 BC - Bronze Age: sailing, trade, and development of writing around 3,000 BC - Iron Age: started using iron then steel around 1,200 BC into AD - Ancient Greece: rise of science and mathematics • City-state: Athens and Sparta - Roman Empire: urban areas and trade routes • Sophisticated infrastructure - Dark (Middle) Ages: rise of religion • Feudal system - Church vs. Galileo: Galileo was convicted of his beliefs in science/mathematics. He believed in the heliocentric model while the church believed in the geocentric model - Crusades began in 1095 due to Pope Urban II’s request of Christians to invade the “Muslim World” to reclaim Jerusalem; lasted into the 13th Century. 5 Monday, September 19, 2016 Friday: - European Revolutions: Cultural and Political • Colonialism: the territorial development strategy where a territory is occupied by a foreign government - Used military power to acquire foreign territories and resources - Organization according to objectives related to resource acquisition and market expansion - Often politically, religious, or racially driven • Between 1400-1945: - The colonial movements were undertook by Europe all over the world • 1400-1800: - Spain, Portugal, Holland, France, and England were the main colonial powers • After 1800: - England had a dominance over others - Early Modern Europe Renaissance began in the early-to-mid 1400’s through the early 1600’s in an effort • to expand knowledge - Appreciation for science and the arts - The foundation of modern “states” began in this time period Monarchies and tribes began fighting over resources and land when the population • grew - A desire to formally recognize territory was demanded by the wealthy - Cities began to grow rapidly and thus a desire to establish control • Agrarian Revolution - Growth of ports and cities increased the demand for food in markets • Farming became huge in Europe 6 Monday, September 19, 2016 • Started the system of trade for goods and services (a system; key for a region to develop) - Agrarian Revolution • Began in Europe in the late 1750s - Based on new agricultural innovations: • Mechanization and fertilizers • Scientific and commercial agriculture • Crop rotation • Declining food prices • During this revolution, new crops were introduced (potatoes and tomatoes), due to efficiency there was an increase in food production, and thus enabled sustained population increase - Political Revolutions • Population growth helped to unify areas further - Establish territories and end fighting - The Treaty of Westphalia (1648) • Gave the Swiss independence of Austria, the Netherlands independence from Spain, and Sweden gained territory • Established international law (property rights) • Early Europe: monarchs had absolute power, with few given to the people - Monarchs were dying towards the end of the Industrial Revolution - French Revolution ended the absolute power of monarchs in Europe (late 1700’s) • Creation of the modern Nation-State: - The concept of nationalism (19th century) - Cultural identity for groups of humans • Democracy/ Parliamentary Systems: 7 Monday, September 19, 2016 - Rebellion against absolute political power (monarchy) - Separation between the church and state - Industrial Revolution • Started in the UK between 1750-1850 • Technical innovations occurred in British industry - Use of new materials (steel, iron, chemicals) - Usage of thermal energy to produce mechanical energy - Mechanized labor replaced human and animal labor - Production (factories) - Transportation (rail) • Health (medicine) • Proved to be a major catalyst towards increased urbanization - People moved where the jobs were • Improved European global power • Was not a sudden process • Took place in several areas at different times - Started in Britain and moved east into European continent, eventually into NA in the mid- 1800’s (post Civil War) • Britain was the original since it had access to raw materials from around the globe - Textiles, steam power, (boats, trains), iron making (furnaces, ships, stoves, cannons, and weapons) - France, Germany, Poland, Scandinavia, and Russia started getting involved with supplying raw materials eventually with production of their own • Lots of social inequality (social classes developed) - Problems that arose during the Industrial Revolution: • General exploitation: - Child labor 8 Monday, September 19, 2016 - Long working hours - Safety - Very low pay - Most people didn’t have a choice…. • If they complained, they were replaced - 9


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