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Week 6 Notes

by: Kaeli

Week 6 Notes PSYC 101 001


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About this Document

Covers memory & learning 9/20 and 9/22
Introduction to Psychology
Miki KItchen
Class Notes
memory, learning, Psycology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaeli on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Miki KItchen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
Week 6 Notes PSYC 101 Memory & Learning  Memory is NOT binary  o Not a yes or no  o Requires several cognitive processes  Blocking items you don’t need  Encoding the ones you do  Requires constant attention  Process of acquiring information and applying it in some way  Transduced signals  o Allow differentiation of memories  Retaining memories is crucial  Attention invites memory  Working memory o Longer term memory o Information currently using  o Average 7 pieces of information at once o Make chunks of information   Also sensory association o Episodic buffering  Close your eyes and do something with the information o Manipulation of information is what makes it say o Rehearse the information   Continuing to use the information  Memory­ the ability to retain knowledge o Bottom down  o Top up   Fill in or make sense of information  o Memory is not reliable  Differences between actual occurrences and memories o Increases based on senses   To increase memory, associate something specific with a set of  information, something sensory   Long term memory o Spread activation model  Link something to another concept   Longer the line the less likely the connection  Efficient for semantic memory   Sequential  Definition  Tip of the tongue phenomenon o Internalized expectations  What should happen   Efficient for episodic information  “Schemas”  Similar to chunking  We have one for where people should be o If it denies this, won’t be memorized   Fill in the blanks of a story based on yourself  Result of decay o Retrieval changes a memory  Memories are guided by goals  Fail to remember information that is inconsistent with your desires  Learning o Looking at an environment and knowing your reaction  Reaction gauged by observable behaviors o Small changes in behavior  Behavioral categories  o Instincts o Reflexes o Physiological response  Environmental response o Orientation reflex  Protective  Started by motor neurons  After brain has processed stimulus  Leftover response  Goosebumps o Instincts  Elicited by stimuli   Unlearned  Flexible  Brain involved  Example  Yawning o Helps to sync emotions  William James  Found that humans have the most instincts  Instincts are positively correlated to conflicts  Once learned, becomes automatic  Types of learning o Nonassosiative learning  Involves changes in the magnitude of responses in response to a stimulus  rather than making connections  Habituation  Adapting to stimuli  Sensitization  Increasing reaction to all stimuli based on a single stimulus o Earthquake example: after an earthquake, people are more  anxious of movement o Associative learning   Connections between environment and stimuli   Bringing a jacket to a cold class  Classical  Connections between pairs of stimuli   Taste aversion study   Stronger associations = easier learning  Operant  Associations between behaviors and consequences  Law of effect  Shaping techniques   Toper ant economy o Observational learning  Can be negative or positive  Transmitting behavior  Don’t have to engage in behavior to learn  Latent learning  Learn how to do something, consequences matter   Aware of consequences  Behavior must be stored as a memory   Must be motivated to do a behavior  Willing to accept consequences


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