LIS 358, Week 2
LIS 358, Week 2 LIS 358
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bronwyn L on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIS 358 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Rhonda Clark in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Media For Children in Library Science at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
LIS 358 Media for Children Dr. Rhonda Clark Week 2 Week 2: History of Children’s Literature 1. History of Children’s Lit: Long before stories were recorded, they were passed down through oral tradition by the natives of North America, Africa, Central and South America, and Europe. There were also manuscripts written by scribes and monks, but these were very expensive and hard to come by. Hornbooks were created after the printing press was invented in the 1450s. See full definition of hornbooks on page 42 of the textbook, paragraph 2 under “Early Printed Books.”) Also see Caxton’s hornbooks of manners and fables, and chapbooks on pages 43-44, paragraphs 4- 10 under “Early Printed Books.”) See “The Puritan Influence” and “John Locke’s Influence on Views of Childhood” on pages 44-45 for further reading on how religion and philosophy impacted children’s literature. Children were viewed as “small adults”—worked very hard all day, leaving no time to read. No true concepts of vocabulary, literacy abilities, learning styles, etc. th The first “kindergarten” was established in the US in the 19 century, although the concept dates back to Froebel in Germany. When children’s books started to emerge, the emphasis was on nurturing, moral/religious teachings, and the need to play. 2. Tales and folklore: In 1812, Wilhelm and Jacob Grimm (the Brothers Grimm) published their first edition of fairytales recorded in German, many of which they heard from Dortchen and Gretchen Wild. The first edition was more scholarly and annotated, and the second edition was meant more for children. It was translated from German to English in 1823. Other well-known figures in folklore include Charles Perrault (France; wrote Tales of Mother Goose), Baba Yaga (Russian “witch” who could be good or evil depending on the story), and Hans Christian Andersen (Denmark; wrote “The Little Mermaid” and “The Ugly Duckling”). The hook of these tales included good vs. evil, magic and spirits, death, hunger; poverty, kings, queens, the upper-class; disease, and play—elements that were both enchanting and relatable to children of the era. 3. Illustrations: Woodcuts and drawings became central to children’s literature. Three 19 century, English artists who were renown for their influence on illustrations in children’s lit were Randolph Caldecott, Kate Greenaway, and Walter Crane. 4. Victorian Era: By the Victorian Era, the view on children as mere “little adults” was beginning to change. Thus, there was a strong sense that they needed “teaching” in literature. Themes in stories involved moral lessons, religious elements, temperance, and family. th The late 19 century saw a large-scale growth of literacy, so serials and “reading libraries” for children were starting to be published. Many reflected the suffering of children during the Industrial Revolution in the hopes that readers would sympathize for the plight of children. One such work is Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s “The Cry of the Children,” written in 1862. By the mid-1800s, the concept of children’s literature changed once more. Instead of just teaching, adults believed children needed more fantastical elements in stories, and should read for pleasure. Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Alice Through the Looking Glass are arguably the first children’s books meant solely for pleasure, not to teach any lessons. Adventure was also rapidly becoming a common theme during this time period. Children enjoyed earlier adventure titles such as Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels and Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe—both of which were published in the 1700s for adults but were quickly loved by kids. In the Victorian Era, popular adventure books meant for children included Robert Louis Stevenson’s Treasure Island (1883), Howard Pyle’s Robin Hood (1883), and Jules Verne’s Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1869). Real people who wrote fictional works based on their own lives and surroundings emerged during the late 19 and early 20 centuries. Famous authors who integrated their personal histories into children’s books include Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens), Louisa May Alcott, and Johanna Spyri. (See more details on pages 56-57 under the section “Real People.”) 5. Evaluation of literature, book censorship, and library history See the evaluation criteria box on page 60 for the 9 questions to ask while evaluating and criticizing adolescent literature. See chart 2.3 for notable authors of children’s books (pages 58-59), chart 2.4 for highlights in the history of book censorship (page 62), and chart 2.5 for the history of libraries (page 63). 6. Children and the family: 1856-1903 Emphasis on: Responsibility, faith and religion, a strive for perfection, respect for authority, church life, assigned social norms and gender roles, and overcoming conflicts of the self, others, and against other outside influences (poverty, disease, etc.) Examples of literature include Little Women (Louisa May Alcott), Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm (Kate Douglas Wiggins), and The Five Little Peppers and How They Grew (Margaret Sydney). (See more details on pages 64-64 under “The Child and the Family, 1856-1903.”) 7. Children and the family: 1938-1960 Emphasis on: Optimism, stable families and communities, safe and happy children, respected and wise elders; religion and faith, patriotism, respect for authority, independence, and generations follow the traditional roles set before them. Characters had little conflict to deal with. Examples of literature include Meet the Austins (Madeline L’Engle), All-of-a-Kind Family (Sydney Taylor), and The Moffats (Eleanor Estes). (See more details on pages 65-66 under “The Child and the Family, 1938-1960.”) 8. Children and the family: 1969-Present: Emphasis on: Independence, outspokenness of children, questioning of religion and authority, criticism of adult figures; responsibility, dignity, unstable family lives, nontraditional family units, and more realistic diversity. Examples of literature include Where the Lilies Bloom (Vera and Bill Cleaver), Joey Pigza Loses Control (Jack Gantos), and Mom, the Wolf Man, and Me (Norma Klein). (See more details on pages 66-67 under “The Child and the Family, 1969-Present.”)
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