Medieval Crusade: March To Constantinople
Medieval Crusade: March To Constantinople 4330
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Gipson on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 4330 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Kathryn Beebe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Medieval Crusades and the Jihad in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
March to Constantinople and Capture of Antioch Relics during the Medieval Times were thought to be very powerful and religious. o Holy Lance was said to be the weapon used to puncture Jesus in the side while he was pierced to the cross. Symbol, especially to troops rallying after months of siege and starvation, that God is behind their cause. First Crusade Overview o 1094- Alexius I appealed to Pop Urban II for help o 1095- Urban II’s speech at Clermont o 1096- Peasants’ Crusade (unofficial) Normandy o 1096- Official crusade launched o 1099- Crusaders capture Jerusalem The Routes of the First Crusade Map: (Possible Quiz) o Raymond of Toulouse through Hungary o Bohemund of Taranto through Italy (More common route) Travels with Brothers o Nicaea was the first town to overtake and capture. Constantinople o Founded by the Emperor Constantine o Meticulously picked the perfect piece of land Hub on all trade routes during Medieval Eras Control of Sea Routes with Bosphorous Strait and Sea of Marmara Sea attack was only way. Only one land access off to the West Byzantine Conservatism/Defensiveness o 610-1071 Byzantine history shaped by series of invasions Slavs Persians Arabs Turks o Road struggle to retain former strength. o Anna Comnena, writes about her father, Byzantine Emperor Alexius I. One of the most important historical works by a woman writer written before the modern period. The Siege of Nicaea o May 16-June 19, 1097 o Sultan has NO fear or threat of the crusaders from the West Fighting in the East and leaves family in the city. March to Constantinople and Capture of Antioch Crusaders have Alexius’ support, gaining supplies for troops. Starvation for weeks and weeks. Alexius’ shared the loot with the Crusaders in exchange for the oath to him. Next goal was Antioch but stopped and ambushed by Turkish troops. o Tankrid in one group and rescued by Raymond of Toulouse. o Attempted strongholds within the journey The Seige of Antioch o October 21 1097- June 3, 1098 o June 5/7-28 1098 o Besiegers short of supplies by Christmas o Bohemund routs a Turkish ambush-raises Crusaders morale o Pere the Hermit and his companion William try to escape and are caught o Taticius, Alexius’ representatives leaves o Stephen of Blois deserts on June 1 1098 o Steong belief that sexual dissipation was causing the lack of success Crusaders’ council expels women from the camp (temporarily) o Bohemund makes a secret bargain with a citizen in the city. June 3, Bohemund’s men are able to climb the walls and open a gate-bloodbath followed. Kerbogha of Mosul arrives June 5, 1098 to besiege the city; the citadel was still Muslim hands Discover of the Holy Lance Peter Bartholomew Frankish Victory in Antioch: o June 28-Bartholomew leads the entire crusading army out of one gate o Kerbogha believes Crusaders were fleeing and did not attack o Forced into a pitched battle, Kerbogha’s army was routed o The citadel surrendered, and Antioch was fully capture by the Franks o Aftermath: Struggle between Bohemund and Raymond of Toulosue Delay of march to Jerusalem Unrest in the ranks August 1, 1098, Adhemar of LePuy dies of typhoid fever. March to Constantinople and Capture of Antioch One of the only figures respected by all troops and bring them together. Division only INCREASED. Uneasy accord, finally set off to Jerusalem. How do our sources treat violence in this period? Document 14: Solomon bar Samson on the Massacres of Jews o Taking their own lives was not cowardly but noble. Why waste time when you can ascend into heaven and be granted eternal life? Document 15: Anna Comnena’s Alexiad Document 18:
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