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BISC104 Week 3 notes

by: mtraub

BISC104 Week 3 notes BISC104

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About this Document

These notes cover class materials from 9/19-9/23
Principles of Biology with Laboratory
Dr. Patricia Walsh
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by mtraub on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC104 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. Patricia Walsh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
9/19 Nucleic Acids - Roles in cell • RNA • DNA - Structure of DNA • backbone made of sugar & phosphate • center made with nitrogen bases - Base-pairing rules • A with T G with C • • Hydrogen bonds • Anti-parallel strands Unity in Diversity - organisms share many similarities • Same basic biochemistry - same types of macromolecules • Cells - phospholipid bilayer-plasma membrane - organelles in all eukaryotes Cells - fundamental unit of life • prokaryote - no nucleus • eukaryote - nucleus - organelles • both - cell membrane - ribosomes - cell wall (only plant cells) - DNA What class of biological macromolecules are typically hydrophobic? A. carbohydrates B. proteins C. nucleic acids D. lipids An amino acid is to a protein as A. a steroid is to a lipid B. RNA is to a nucleotide C. a glucose molecule is to a polysaccharide D. fatty acid is to a nucleic acid E. cellulose is to a cell wall Chapter 3: Nutrient, Cells and Membrane Transport Importance of Water - Necessary for survival • solvent • chemical reaction • transport blood, urine • maintain body temperature - Dangers of dehydration 9/21 Macronutrients - Water - Carbohydrates C, H, O • - Simple Carbohydrates • mono + disaccharide glucose (m), fructose (m), sucrose (d), lactose (d) • • Food source: - milk, fruit juice, honey, etc. - Complex Carbohydrates • Polysaccharides • Food source - grains, fruits, vegetables, fiber (moves things through digestive track) - Proteins • C, H, N, O • polymers of amino acids • variety of functions Food source • - fish, chicken, eggs, nuts, beans • Essential amino acids - must be in diet—can’t be made • Complete proteins - contains all the essential amino acids - Fats • C, H, O energy • • glycerol + fatty acid tails • essential fatty acids: - must be in diet—can’t be made • food source: - salmon, nuts, flax seed • Saturated fats - fatty acid tail saturated with H - solid at room temperature - mostly animal products • Unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats - C=C double bond - liquid at room temperature • Trans fats - hydrogenation of vegetable oil - high pressure/hydrogenation Micronutrients - nutrients that are needed in small quantities - Vitamins • organic—contain carbon • often function as coenzymes subject of much research • • Source • Types - water-soluble, fat-soluble - Minerals • inorganic water-soluble • - Antioxidants • protect cells from free radicals Proteins are polymers of A. fatty acids B. nucleic acids C. amino acids D. nucleotides E. none of the above 9/23 What is the only vitamin our cells can synthesize A. vitamin A B. vitamin B C. vitamin C D. vitamin D You have isolated an organic molecule from an animal cell. It only contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. It could not be A. carbohydrates B. proteins C. nucleic acids D. lipids E. B and C Animal and Plant cells - Usually larger - more complex - Cytoplasm • cytosol membrane-bound organelles • - nucleus • non-membrane bound structures - Plasma membrane • phospholipid bilayer with proteins • fluid mosaic • semipermeable barrier • cholesterol • semipermeable - Cell wall (plant cells, prokaryotes) • outside of the plasma membrane • made up of fibers (cellulose) • strong / porous / flexible • protects & supports the cell - Nucleus • Job: store genetic information • chromatin—composed of DNA & proteins nucleolus—ribosomes are made • - Mitochondrion • job: energy processing—cellular respiration - Chloroplast (plants, photosynthetic protists) job: photosynthesis • - Lysosomes (primarily in animal cells) • digestive enzymes and digested material • Job: digest food, housekeeping, protection - Ribosomes • made in the nucleolus • made of protein & RNA • Job: protein synthesis - Endoplasmic Reticulum • membrane tunnels • some is rough ER - protein synthesis • some smooth ER - lipid synthesis, detoxification - Golgi Apparatus • Job: sort, modify, repackage, & ship - Cytoskeleton • Job: provides support for the cell, shape, contraction, anchor, tracts for organelles - Centrioles (only animal cells) • spindle apparatus • Job: moving chromosomes - Central vacuole (plant cells) • H2O + material dissolved / stores water


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