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Notes for Week 3 PLS 150

by: Chelsea Opong-Wadeer

Notes for Week 3 PLS 150 PLS 150

Marketplace > University of Rhode Island > Plant Science > PLS 150 > Notes for Week 3 PLS 150
Chelsea Opong-Wadeer
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About this Document

These notes talk about Sustainable Agriculture and Crops specifically apples
Plants, People and the Planet
Nathaniel Mitkowski
Class Notes
plants, agriculture




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Opong-Wadeer on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PLS 150 at University of Rhode Island taught by Nathaniel Mitkowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Plants, People and the Planet in Plant Science at University of Rhode Island.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
Sustainable Agriculture 9/21/16 Legal Definition of Sustainable Agriculture:  The term "sustainable agriculture" (U.S. Code Title 7, Section 3) means an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site- specific application that will over the long-term.  Satisfy human food and fiber needs  Enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agriculture economy depends o Just the opposite of the Dust Bowl  Make the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources and on-farm resources amd integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls  Sustain the economic viability of farm operations  Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as whole Cliff notes version of what Sustainable Agriculture is:  Make food and fiber  Improve the environment  Use oil efficiently-minimize need  Transition to onsite inputs  Make some money  Improve everyone's quality of life  Works really well on small lands, larger lands harder Other important stuff:  Soil stewardship, resource protection  Soil genesis = millions of years  Tillage can damage soils  Crop suitability  Cover cropping o When the field is not being used  Recycling, using only local inputs  Local markets  Crop rotation o Not growing the same crop in the same field year after year o Lessens the amount of pesticides  Farming in the 1700's was small, but not very sustainable o b/c they would deplete the soil from all it's nutrients  Modern sustainable farming can be expensive (food costs more) o Requires skill and planning o Produces small amounts of food o Not a complete food solution  What about those landraces? o More effective because they may not have lots of variety, but they will have some o Polycultures: dozen varieties and permacultures  Even small plots make a difference  Victory gardens of WWII  Urban agriculture (Detroit) Crops 9/21/16 The Apple:  Malus domestica o Malus: Apple in Greek o Domestica means domesticated  Family Rosaceae: the family the Apple comes from o Roses, strawberries, raspberries, cherries, peaches, almonds, etc. o Originated from Kazakstan to Turkey Apple History:  25-55 different species originally  Hybridized and selected  Domesticated apple by 8,000 BC  Passed throughout ancient world  Orchards became prized property  6,500 BC – apple remains in Jordan  5,000 BC – records of apples in China  800 BC – apples in Greek poetry  100 BC – Horace describes Italy as a giant apple orchard Apples in America:  Apples are not native to America  Crabapples are native (numerous species) st  1 apple in America in 1625 – Boston o Pilgrims came to America in 1621 so only 4 years later Apples came too  Apple became a staple crop  Moved with pioneers as they went west  By 1700's orchards across New England  Apples store well in root cellars  Apples were harvested from July- Nov. o Apples actually grow in bad soil  Apples were included in every meal – in pioneer America  Cider, brandy, pies, butter, cake, sauce... o Apples were the staple crop  2,000 varieties for different purposes – not all of them still exist  Every farm had an orchard Apple Economics:  60 million tons grown annually  Estimated value $100 billion  China had the most Apple production:  Majority of US apples come from Washington, followed by New York State and Michigan Apple lumber:  Extremely hard and dense  Dulls blades quickly  Prone to splitting when drying  Attractive deep red/brown color  Very expensive  Used mainly for tools and parts Apples Pollination:  Apples are cross pollinated  Require bees o The bee has to take the pollen of one apple tree to another apple tree o Can't be from the same apple or tree  Can use almost any other apple  Generally not the same variety Apple propagation:  Apples seeds are no good  Apple seeds do not "breed true"  To get a Macintosh apple, you need to use a young Macintosh apple branch  Apples are grafted  The roots of commercial apple plants come from a different plant than branches  Scion= branch part  Rootstock= root part  Each has different useful characteristics that the other part does not have! Apple Rootstocks:  Malling 9 = dwarf o Commonly found in apple orchards  Malling 7 = semi-dwarf  MM-111 = semi-dwarf  Standard = full height Apple varieties:  At least 7,000 exist today  Few (~50) planted commercially  Growers only plant what sells  New varieties every year, few get to the market  Extremely wide variation and adaptation Rhode Island Greening: nd  2 oldest American variety  Developed in 1650 from seed  Green's End, RI (Middletown, RI)  Rhode Island state fruit  Similar to Granny Smith  Why do we care? o Most popular apple in NY during 1800's o Last URI tree fell over and died in 2007 Where are all the apple trees?  Dwarf trees only live 30 years  Standard trees live 50-75 years  Wood is valuable (often harvested)  Trees break easily in wind and snow  Apples and bees can be a nuisance o Apples need to be managed o Pears can be ignored


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