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HIST 330

by: Hewan Ft

HIST 330 Hist 330

Hewan Ft

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About this Document

Notes up to the start of the civil war.
Diplomatic History
S. Mooney
Class Notes
history, american
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hewan Ft on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 330 at James Madison University taught by S. Mooney in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Diplomatic History in History at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
History 330­ Week 4 Oregon is administered jointly with the British beginning in 1872. By the  1840 settlers and merchants wanted a change of status ­ 5,000 American settlers ­ A decade of diplomacy with British almost comes unhinged in 1844­45 ­ Daniel Webster, through diplomacy had resolved several crisis with the  British over rebellions, boundaries, etc….favored diplomacy over war ­ 54/40 or fight! Polk edmands all of the oregon territory, rejected.­ this was a ridiculous claim, but he wanted to ask anyways ­ Polk negotiates terms with the british, turning attention to mexico­he  realized he couldn't fight the british and the mexicans and went back to the  49th ­ British prepared for war, polk backs down and accepts the 49 parallel as  the oregon territory boundary­ had been a defacto line since the start but  just extended westward. ­ US senate under webster and calhoun negotiate the treaty, but claims  victory ­ Demographics on the ground are what really matter. What about Texas and Mexico? ­ 15000 americans already lived in texas by 1830 which was under mexican  rule. The wanted to apply the multiplication process again and so moses  Austin leads first group of american families into texas ­ Santa anna takes control of taxes and it declares its independence in 1835  with the help of texas ­ John Q adams didn't wanna annex texas because of they didn't wanna  expand slavery ­ 1844­45 texas annexation occurs and mexico who never really accepted or recognized mexico’s independence sees american annexation as an act of  war. James K polk­ president  American Viewpoint:­ ­ VAST majority of americans want to expand due to manifest destiny. ­ Although the whigs did not want to see american expansion Polk ultimately wanted california Texas for all intensive purposes is already in american hands Polk uses manifest destiny to begin us 1st war conquest with mexico Offers to purchase mexican territory are rebuffed. John slidell’s diplomatic  efforts are a disaster, doomed to failure. Polk beings a campaign of misinformation and misrepresentation of events  to get congress to approve war. Accused mexico of invading the US, when in fact the opposite was most  likely true. “Congress should trust the President” polk declares. WAR General winfield scott and Zachary taylor both win victories and became  national heroes. The US  army marches towards mexico city and hopes for  a political settlement. Polk requested for the purchase of all of mexico but the wilmot proviso says you cannot purchase land where slavery could be expanded. Mexico initially refused to surrender­ but eventually come to the conclusion  of the treaty of guadalupe hidalho (1848) The US could have absorbed all of mexico but didn't want to. John Calhoun (democrat south carolina) ­ He was opposed to Polk’s war territory ­ He believed the monroe doctrine was being used to justify empire. ­ Attacked the doctrine The pacific > The pacific becomes the focal point of european rivalry > US plays a minor role. This continues through the late 19th century >With economic expansion, countries started to demands for american  protection which lead to a larger naval presence by the US > Merchants and missionaries fan out  across the pacific­ followed US  business interests 1842 Tyler Doctrine­ sphere of influence. Hawaii signs a secret agreement with US in which in france or britain  attacked hawaii, america would protect them Opening of china equates to a rising interest in hawaii China: In Secular in nature, tightly, restricted trade with western merchants. ­ Opium war and treaty of nanking (1842) open china to british merchants by  force. ­ The united states practices “hitch hiking imperialism”­ (rely on  europeans, and exploit opening where they appear). So when germans,  british and french set up imperial empires, americans would exploit trade  with them ­ Americans had two treaties with the chinese 1844­58 ­ Both further trading with american merchants ­ The chinese wanted to play europeans and americans off on another. Japan ­ US leads in opening japan and the inverse happens where the british  exploit the trade. ­ 1854 Commodore Matthew perry­ treaty of kanagawa ­ Minstrel shows, african­american servants along with chinese coolies.  Meant to demonstrates american racial and cultural superiority. The  message being “look how many people we have control and power over”. ­ THREATENED them into signing the treaty. ­ Opening of Japan modernize very quickly because they didn't wanna end  up like china. 9/23/2016 Key terms:­ King Cotton King wheat Young america Stephen Douglas “Ostend manifesto” Marcy­elgin treaty Kansas­nebraska Matthew C. Perry William Seward Gadsden purchase Trent affair Crittenden Compromise Abraham lincoln Alabama and florida National liberalism Cassius clay Civil War Long term Causes Market Revolution­ to same economic system that leads america expand  globally Missouri compromise (1820) Nullification crisis (1833) federal tariff, states rights against federal, state  sovereignty, secession.­ States rights against federal rights Abolition & pro­slavery movement of the 1830s and 1840­ makes america  at a disadvantage in dealing with newly freed south american countries The civil war was based on the economic benefits of free labour­ aka  slaves, it was not about states rights. Short term causes of the civil war Crisis and compromise 1850 Kansas­nebraska act of 1854 Emergence of republican party (1854) Dred scott case (supreme court decision, 1857) John brown’s raid on harper’s ferry (1859) Presidential election of 1860 Internationally German unification Japanese raise Tsarist russia North Vs South ­ Shifting balance of power between north and south ­ Southern politicians see continues territorial expansion as a continues hope of slavery (cuba, mexico and nicaragua) ­ Northern politicians oppose expansion based on a fear of slavery ­ National identity and union was still incomplete. This existed only as a  concept, not as a practicality. ­ Expansionism is viewed as a solution to domestic problem ­ Entrenchment for abolitionist and pro­slavery advocates Big picture ­ Mid 19th century nation building in europe (germany, italy) japan (to come) ­ European conflict prevents nations from capitalizing upon US turmoil.­ EU  could not properly exploit america under war. ­ Northern and southern diplomatic efforts were concentrated on preventing  or creating intervention/recognition on behalf of the confederacy ­ Europe is ultimately unlikely to intervene­ comes close in 1862 but they  decided it wasn't worth their time or money William Seward ­ Ran for president in 1860, defeated by Lincoln­ During the was seen to be  rash and uneven in temperament but he was very intentional, he wasn’t   But during the civil war, he wanted the french and the British to think he  was rash and kind of a loose cannon. ­ Considered himself intellectually superior to lincoln and portrayed his role  as a guide or prime minister to the president ­ Strong abolitionist in his sentiments ­ Perceived as a rash, uneven in temperament, but calculating and  deliberate in how we wished to be perceived by european powers. ­ Seward becomes lincoln's closest advisor, friend and ardent defender Lincoln­ Wanted to save the union ­ Lincoln’s assumes the office of president in 1861 ­ Is determined not to fire first shot of the conflict with the south. Gettysburg address ­ Lincoln was was not the keynote speaker ­ Attempts at increasing public support for the union war effort ­ Lincoln uses the speech to redefine the conflict as one in which the nation  will see a rebirth of freedom based on equality. ­ Lincoln and seward wanted to make sure the southerns were never seen  as legitimate offenders but rather belligerent opposers British and union roles are reversed as a union blockade disrupts southern  shipping Confronting the cost of war, associated risk and disrupting lucrative trade  all emerge to ensure british neutrality and leaning toward the union The trent affair­ James mason and John Slidell­ Confederate diplomats  seized by union forces aboard a british ship in international waters. Souther diplomacy­ poorly received Little initial attention, after tough Slavery and expansionist tendencies turns off southern neighbors National liberalism of europe does not  look kindly upon a slaveholding  society Self embargo of cotton doesn't work (time) Kind wheat matter more.


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