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Exam 1 notes

by: Elyssa Woods
Elyssa Woods
Penn State

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The notes cover the material for exam 1
Mass Media and Soc
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elyssa Woods on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 100 at Pennsylvania State University taught by MATTHEW MCALLISTER in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Mass Media and Soc in Journalism and Mass Communications at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
8/25  Rules of what you can and cannot do on specific tv show channels o In comm you have the source of a message then receivers of a message  Media Space: kind of tv environment that created the tv show  Feedback: is when the receiver influences the source o Varies with different TV shows channels o High feedback for Netflix shows  Receiver Reaction: is not necessarily feedback unless somehow the sender notices it and responds to it  Audience reaction: is not feedback for TV (they can’t see us when we are watching a show) o Main form of feedback Nielson rating(feedback) company o Nielson rating company- tv feedback o L+1 (watch a show that day or the next day on the DVR o L+3 (watch a show by the three day mark)  ABC channel: commercial broadcasting, ads, little cussing, variable feedback o Ex. Modern family, blackish I. Principles of Media Industries -How media industries are organized? How they make $? Basic framework for media industries: -organizations form roles 1. Production company-makes the tv show or movie or book ex. In the movie industry a production comp] any 1. fund the production 2. editing final product 3. hire actors, screen writers, directors ect (coordinates everything) ex. Movie production company -Lionsgate, Pixar, Paramount*, Dreamworks, 20 th century Fox*, Summit, Amblin Entertainment, ABC*,CBS* ex. TV production companies -William Street production, Bad Robot, acme productions, That’s alive, Fuzzy door productions, chuck lorre, shondaland ex. Newspaper Production companies -The new york times, center daily times, daily collegient 2. Exhibition Companies: main responsibility is to get content directly to its customers (we interact with) ex. Movies: Theaters, Internet Service Providers (ISP), Red Box, Target/Retail Outlets; Broadcasting (local stations) ex. TV: cable(Comcast), satellite(dish) ex. Newspapers: New york times (the NYT delivers the NYT), Center daily times 8/30  Radio: o The regular radio in the car (AM,FM)- this is broadcasting & signals are sent by a local radio station 3. Distribution Companies: gathers all produced content and makes sure it goes to all the rest of the country/community/world a) Movie: Disney, Warner Bros, Columbia, Universal, 20 Foxh -Studio=distributors *Disney is mostly the distributor *Independent movie does not have a distributor -ex. Sun Dance film festival filled with representatives to see which films are worth it to distribute to their firms -the distributor also in charge of/pays for the marketing aspect b) TV: ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, AMC, USA (basic cable networks) -showtime channel (paid cable network) *recognize production company = weird name ex. Fuzzy Door *recognize movie distributor= big name ex. Warner Bros *recognize tv distributor= is it a network ex. ABC, USA, showtime 4. Power and Balance in production, Distribution, and Exhibition -we don’t want any of the three to have all the power-we ant all levels equal and balanced in the system -Networks look for ways to throw an industry out of balance so that they are in charge o The way is to take full control of at least one of the three industries  Called horizontal intergration- where a company controls most or all of the production or distribution or exhibition ( can be one or more than one company) *One company where 2 companies in production controls almost 70% of everything i. Marvel Entertainment- 40% of US comic book sales ii. DC comics- 30% of US comic sales -cable tv as horizontal integration -total cable tv households 54 M -Total number of major cable TV operators-17 Top 2 operators: 1. Comcast = 22M ---- 72% of all cable tv households 2. Spectrum= 17M---- 34% of all TV households -Vertical Integration ex. NBC Sunday night football in America -NBC produces & distributes - Comcast is the main exhibitor (and owns NBC) *** BUT if NBC in LA or NYC are vertically integrated and owned by NBC not Comcast II. Funding systems for media: -IPO (initial public offering) – when business owned by a business or family and they make it public (put it on the stock exchange) -Also the initial infusion of cash in your company -funding systems- how do we keep money coming in? Q: How can a media company make money? 1. Advertising System: Two Types 1. spot advertising (multiple advertisers) 2. sponsorship (one advertiser) ex. Magazine- if free and have ads 100% of revenue is from ads versus a mag. You subscribe to; social media (facebook)—generates media funding mostly by advertisements; Youtube; free apps; radio-- pretty much all their revenue is from ads, and exception is spotify and Pandora because you can subscribe to it as well; newspapers (hybrid)—have ads but you have to pay for it; television (ABC & NBC) – majority of rev comes from advertisiting; cable networks (hybrids)— subscriptions along with ads **controlled circulation magazine- free with ads -hybrid funding system 9/1 A. Market and Product: who us the customer, who do you get money from, and what do you get in return ex. Facebook- customers are advertising  Facebook sells is the audience and is able to measure that very precisely (the user data to the advertiser--- who looked and interacted with that ad)  Neilson tv rating company- what they are really measuring is how many people are seeing the ads so they are measuring the PRODUCT (we as people are the product) o When it is said 20 million people watch the Big Bang theory —CBS translates that into a price to the advertisers to put their add on for the Big Bang Theory o Advertisers are the market o The customers who watch are the products  Price is dependent on the number of people who are exposed to the add . Advantages and Disadvantages Adv  Free (exclusive ads) ; cheap (hybrid) o Hybrid means when media uses more than one funding system  Ad information – tell you that the product exists Dis  Time to watch the ad; interruptability (this bothers us we don’t want to watch the ads)  Ads want to reach 18-35 year olds most people that is the group of people – investing in a loyal group of people who will be around of a long period of time o Advertisers believe that this age group can be easily persuaded and are more likely to change brands and products verses older people are more stuck in their ways and do not want to change brand or products (geared to marketable audiences)  Geared to Consumable messages -the shows advertisers like best is the one where consumers watch the most B. Subscription/ on demand/ pay-per: Direct funding (advertising = indirect funding) 1. Examples: sports events; YouTube Red; HBO; Netflix: Hulu; NYTimes (hybrid); books; MP3; albums; 2. Market: audience; product: content (advertisers don’t play a role) 3. Advantages: no ads, easy payments, no advertising interference (don’t play a role), no time spent watching, ***** not an ad if money does not get exchanged **** turner classic movie doesn’t show any ads this is an exception 4. Disadvantages: not free-we have to pay the bill ex. Netflix subscription; not everyone can afford it (certain groups get left out if you aren’t the desired consumer group); not everyone gets media for it; Ex. (cat house diaries, g-string divas, real sex---- HBO show this is adult explicit programming)------ HBO needs subscribers so that is why they have these adult programs the care how many people “subscribe to HBO because of these adult shows, they don’t care how many people actually watch these shows.” *** Demagogic- someone who wants us to do something and tells us things that is our most based desires want to feel appeals to our needs and wants and emotions ad tries to disconnect our intelligence  On demand/Pay-Per-View: direct funding  Advertising; indirect funding 9/6 C. Public Funding (government) 1. Examples: PBS*, NPR* (these gets stars because they don’t make the majority of their money through the government mostly through subscriptions, foundations, sponsors etc.--- example of hybrid media); .gov websites ; AFM-armed forces media C-SPAN: funded by the cable industry- channel about the federal government -they voluntarily fund this channel so that it looks good and that the federal government does not regulate them and so that they wont have any restrictions (not publically funded) The Disney Channel- is free from third party advertising and funded by cable tv, and main thing is to promote Disney  Ex. Wont see ads about coco cola but will see ads about other Disney stuff i.e shows.  They make most of their money by cable subscriptions 2. Market and Product:  The Market is the taxpayer or congress or government allocates them the money in publically funded media  The Product is the content we get- no ads, different info and news 3. Advantages: PBS is suppose to provide non-marketable content, mild content normally -The most critical people about advertising is………. -everything is about generating revenue in the market place Are there ideas we need in a democracy that the forefront of economics wont provide? Disadvantages: Not a lot of money; restrictions; not a lot of variety or fun—can come across as elitist (good for us but we might not want to watch it); danger of government control How a show lasts in the long run- needs a second source of funding -PBS gets money by: direct funding, because they are impoverished  9/8 Newspapers I. What is so special about newspapers? -struggling; ritualistic; continuity; information-historical source; varying content; mix of opinion and info-editorial; (inter)national and local;  ex. The movie Spotlight (journalism group called this because they want to bring to light certain abuses of power—a journalistic philosophy) “watchdog”: investigative journalism  centered the majority of investigative journalism is the newspaper industry o correcting past abuses and present II. Newspapers seems to be in crisis  stabilized for now but not for long A. Trends in advertising a. THESE TRENDS ARE ON ANGEL AND ARE ON THE EXAM b. The number one medium is the TV industry receives more advertising revenue than any other medium- $67 B this year c. *******1, tv, 2 internet $59.7 B—facebook, youtube and google, 3 newspapers-- $18 B i. the percentage loss of newspapers is what is the most scary for this industry ii. spending on advertising is doing okay—positive—and biggest growth medium is internet d. ***Historically- dramatic drop ad spending on newspapers in the U.S after year 2000 i. two kinds of ads in the newspapers 1. display ad- big ad includes pictures and words advertising an event 2. classified ads- the cash cow ads of the newspapers—profit seeking, significant decline in revenue $20B in 2000 and $5B in 2012 a. bigger drop in classified ads compared with display ads because of, craigslist, ebay--- all internet sources B. Trends in readership  Advertisers like older readers less C. Online monetization a. Maybe newspapers will die but not news, that will just move online b. Number of U.S newspapers have declined 150 less the Monday through Friday; exception the SUNDAY NEWSPAPER has increased 1. Reason increase of Sunday newspaper because it is advertising friendly ii. Why don’t newspaper companies switch to completely online? 1. Newspaper online ad revenue has increased since 2004 2. The problem is that there is not an equivalent increase of revenue on online compared to physical newspapers; not monetizing the way they use to iii. Biggest expense in newspaper industry? 1. Journalist, personnel iv. Number one in the newspaper industry Gannett a. They own usa today and own big city newspaper b. What did they do to make it profitable again? i. They laid off employees ii. They asked more but from fewer employees iii. You need a journalist to investigate stuff for their stories--- but most newspapers cannot afford this iv. Not all journalism is the same, the most expensive kind is what is getting cut but it is the kind that we need most the investigative journalist D. More syndicated news a. Bureaus- ex. If the Washington times has a reporter in Los Angeles i. Most newspaper companies cannot afford this though b. Associated press (AP)- news syndicate that someone can subscribe to and they will send you stories that you can put in your newspaper- pay a yearly fee for this i. Ex. Local newspaper who has had to fire lots of employees will do this to fill up info in their newspapers 9/13 Patterson reading Example exam questions Data ad trends Three big topics 1. Emmy nominations 2. Principles of Media and industries a. Production, distribution, exhibitions b. Funding systems—direct, indirect, public 3. Newspapers Turrow:  Three turrow chapters—ch. 1,3 8  Key terms Patterson Reading- study guide based 30 from lecture and 10 from readings


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