PSYC 2010 Chapter 5 (Exam 2)
PSYC 2010 Chapter 5 (Exam 2) PSYC 2010
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashleigh McClure on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2010 at Auburn University taught by Lucia Lazarowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Chapter 5: Sensation and Perception 9/19/16 10:01 AM • Sensation ○ Detection of physical energy and transmission to the brain ○ Activated by physical properties ○ Early processing ○ Physical sensory imput • How does the brain process sensations? ○ Transduction § Sensory input from external world is transformed into neural impulses § Occurs in all senses □ Sensory Receptors ○ Absolute Threshold § Minimum intensity needed to detect a sensation 50% of the time □ Example: 1 teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water § Varies by species □ Example: Dogs have a greater sense of smell than humans ○ Sensory Adaptation § Decrease in sensitivity to constant levels of stimulation □ We are more sensitive to changes in the environment ® Example: jumping in freezing water and then eventually the water feeling warm ® Example: moving to a house near a train station and at first always hearing the horn blare, then forgetting it's there □ Is there a sense in which this does not happen? ® Yes, vision. ◊ Vision is an important sense and if we were desensitized, it would be dangerous. Our eyes are constantly vthis.ing to prevent • Perception The interpretation of those sensory signals ○ ○ After sensation ○ Mental representation ○ Subjective ○ Color Constan § The explanation of the "blue & black/ white & gold dress debate" ○ We can have sensations without perceiving § Example- subliminal messages ○ Two types of processing § Bottom-Up Processing □ Features build up to a complete perception ® Example: the picture of dots you eventually perceive as a dog § Top-Down Processing □ Pre-existing knowledge or expectations shape the interpretation ® Example: having already seen the dot picture so you already knew it was supposed to be a dog. □ Experience and expectation strongly influence perception ® Example: Muller -Lyon illusion ○ Organized Perception § Gestalt Psychology □ The whole is greater than the sum of it's parts ® Top-Down Processing □ Proximity We tend to group things together that are close together ® □ Similarity ® We view things that are together as similar looking □ Closure ® Principle of tending to see complete close shape in things that aren't connected □ Continuity Our brains like to see continuous movements instead of breaking them up ® § Faces □ We have a bias in seeing faces ® Example: seeing a smiley face in inanimate objects § Depth □ Cues from our eyes to avoid running into things and seeing things with more texture, ect. ® Example: the bigger an object appears, we perceive it closer to us. § Size • Vision ○ Our most important sense ○ Stimulus § Light waves ○ Retina § Contains sensory receptors that transduce light into neural signals □ Rods Responsible for black and white vision ® ® Low-light vision □ Cones ® Color vision ® Bright-light vision ◊ Example: colorful snow cone ○ Sensation is determined by light's: § Wavelength □ Determines how long waves are □ Determines color § Amplitude □ How tall the wave is □ Brightness ® Lower amplitude lower light ® Higher amplitude brighter light ○ Color Blindness § Faulty cones □ Red, Green and Yellow cones are how we see all colors □ If you're color blind one of the three doesn’t function properly § Dogs □ See mostly blues and yellows § Birds □ See more colors than we know exist + ultraviolet spectrum □ 4 cones § Mantis Shrimp □ 16 cones ○ Afterimages § Cones tire out and opposite color takes over □ Example: Jesus image Blind sight ○ § Perception without sensation • Hearing ○ Not as important as vision, but part of communication ○ Stimulus § Sound waves □ Produced by changes in air pressure ® Vibrate eardrum ◊ Pressure in inner ear's fluid } Neurons fire and send signal to brain ○ Sensation is determined by sound's: § Wavelength □ Frequency ® Waves that are happening in a period of time ◊ Longer the wavelength the longer the frequency Shorter the wavelength the shorter the frequency ◊ ® Pitch □ Amplitude ® Loudness ◊ Lower amplitude softer Higher amplitude louder ◊ ○ Locating sound § Vestibular Sense □ Maintains balance ○ Sensation vs. Perception § Audio illusions □ Example: Distorted computer sentence makes no sense until you hear the real sentence ® Top-Down Processing □ Example: McGurk effect □ Example: Tritone Paradox □ Example: Shepard Tone Illusion • Taste ○ Stimulus § Food molecules ○ Sensation § Contact wit aste buds □ Sensory organs containing receptors for taste ® Rejuvenate ◊ Taste buds grow back every few weeks ® Desensitize ◊ We lose half of our taste buds by age 20 ® Supertasters ◊ Have more taste buds than the normal person ◊ More sensitive ◊ Can taste more aspects of flavors ○ Basic Tastes § Every taste experience is composed of a mixtureof 5 basic qualities □ Sweet □ Salty □ Sour □ Bitter □ Umami ® Savory, brothy, similar to soy sauce § Influenced by □ Smell and taste are highly connected ® Example: ◊ If you're sick and can't smell, you probably can't taste □ Texture ® Example ◊ People don't like certain foods based on texture and not on taste } Oysters have a weird slimy texture □ Temperature ® Example: ◊ You're more likely to want a cold beer □ Culture ® Example: ◊ If you grew up in a Hispanic family, you might like spicier foods □ Expectations/Labeling ® Example: ◊ Thinking you're drinking water but the bottle isn’t see through and it's milk so you're disgusted □ Your Mom ® What your mother eats while in the womb is transferred to you ◊ Example: } Your mom hating tomatoes could make you hate them too • Smell ○ Stimulus § Molecules ○ Sensation § Contact with receptors in nose Only sensation that is not sent to the thalamus ○ § Olfactory Bulb § Memories and emotions ○ Pheromones § Signals our body gives off that you can't physically smell □ Can signify mating □ Example: ® Women can smell sweaty t -shirts of men and determine how attractive they are • Touch ○ Stimuli § Temperature § Pressure □ We can't tickle ourselves because we are designed to respond to the touch of other's more. § Pain □ Distraction and positive mood can reduce pain ® Example: ◊ Piercer talking to you while getting a piercing } Fear, anxiety and stress can increase pain ○ Snow World § Veteran with severe burns watch virtual reality game □ Plays Paul Simon music and involves snow and ice to distract from the pain of wound cleaning