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Criminal Justice in America

by: Bailey Wilhoit

Criminal Justice in America Criminal Justice 101

Bailey Wilhoit


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These notes cover the material given in class, along with corresponding textbook notes (part of chapter 4).
Criminal Justice in America
Therese Lee Clement
Class Notes
Criminal Justice
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Wilhoit on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Criminal Justice 101 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Therese Lee Clement in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Criminal Justice in America in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of South Carolina - Columbia.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
Criminal Justice  Week 2    ● Defenses: sometimes if you can prove a defense, even if you committed a crime, you  can be acquitted  ● Types of Defenses:  ○ Necessity​ : you are in a situation where you are forced to do something you  wouldn’t normally do  ■ Ex: Queens vs. Dudley and Stevens  ● Dudley, Stevens, and a third person were fisherman. One day  their boat capsizes in a storm and they are stranded on a dinghy,  trying to survive. Days pass, they decide they have to kill one of  them so the other two will make it. They chose to kill the third guy  because he wasn’t married, had no family. They are eventually  rescued but are put on trial and charged with murder. Later the  Queen pardoned them because had they not been in that situation  they would not have done that.  ○ Duress​: forced by another person to commit crime you wouldn’t otherwise  commit  ○ Involuntary Action​  commit act involuntarily but looks like you committed a crime  ■ Ex: in a parking lot you have a seizure causing your foot to come down on  the gas, running into another car. You couldn’t help you had a seizure.  ○ Mistake of Fact​: mistaken about an important fact and as a result of mistake you  do something that is a crime  ■ NOT​ mistake of law. Citizens are responsible for knowing the law.  Mistake of law can not be used as a defense.  ○ Alibi​: proving you weren’t at the scene when the crime took place  ○ Legal Impossibili​  defendant intends to commit a crime, and does everything  possible to commit a crime, but the law doesn’t define the act as illegal  ● Crime is divided into categories”  ○ Personal crimes  ■ Assault: unlawful threat to do bodily harm  ■ Battery: unlawful touching  ■ Kidnapping: stealing a person or unlawfully restraining a person  ■ Robbery: taking something from a person or the immediate presence of a  person by force or threat of force  ■ Rape: having sex with someone without consent  ● Statutory rape: having sex with someone under the age of  consent. Even if they verbally consent, law says they cannot  consent due to age  ■ Homicide: killing of a human being by another  ● Murder: killing with malice aforethought  ● Manslaughter: killing under heat of passion  ● Felony DUI: killing while driving under the influence  ○ Crime against Habitation  ■ Burglary: entry without permission with intent sto commit crime therein  ● Entry: kicking someone’s door in, going in uninvited  ■ Arson: intentionally catching anything on fire that isn’t yours  ○ Property Crimes  ■ Larceny: stealing  ■ Malicious injury to property (vandalism)  ● Rules of Procedure: certain way you have to do things  ○ Search and Seizure​: the 4th amendment gives us protection from unlawful  searches and seizures  ■ If police don’t have a search warrant but they search anyway…  ● Exclusionary rule: illegally seized evidence should be excluded  from trial as evidence  ● Fruit of poisonous tree: anything that an illegal search produces  should also be excluded  ● If law enforcement interrogates you and violates your rights to get  a confession, it should be suppressed  ○ Ex: physical punishment, refusing you food, water,  bathroom  ■ Miranda rights  ● Miranda vs. Arizona  ● Rights that protect citizen being arrested or interrogated­ must be  in custody  ■ Forced confessions should be suppressed  ■ Exceptions:  ● When law enforcement pats you down  ● Law enforcement can lie to get you to confess  ○ Internal affairs is a division of law enforcement department  ■ They look over their own department to make sure everyone is doing  there jobs  ■ If internal affairs is corrupt we’re screwed  ○ Prosecutors look over law enforcement’s shoulders  ■ If prosecutor knows the cop violated a suspect’s rights in the arrest, they  should refuse to prosecute  ■ Can be prosecution­oriented and overlook violations  ○ Courts  ■ Should exclude or suppress evidence when necessary  ● Policing is still evolving  ● Code of Hammurabi: oldest code of laws  ○ Older than biblical texts, hebrew texts  ○ Complete set of laws regarding civil matters and crimes  ● Roots of american policing comes from England  ○ Medieval: when a person was victimized, they were supposed to be made whole,  reimbursed  ■ Frankpledge system​ required that groups of 10 families (called tithings)  agree to uphold the law, keep order, and bring violators to court  ○ Over time the ​Office of the Shire­reeve​ was developed  ■ Person appointed by land lord or king to uphold landlord/king laws  ■ Appointed by politics/loyalty  ■ Concerned about landlord/king rights, not individual  ○ William the Conqueror comes along, takes control  ■ Appoints sheriff's according to loyalty to him  ■ Thinks about crime, how it hurts society, not just individual  ■ If you could cut down on crime it would make society better  ■ Takes focus away from individual, since society is being hurt, society  should be paid back  ● Instituted fines; ultimately changed whole focus of criminal justice  system  ● Pay back debt to society  ● It becomes the state’s case. We still use this idea today  ○ Magna Carta: established origins of due process in english law  ■ You have rights, must be protected  ■ Bill of Rights  ■ Industrial revolution in England:  ● People start moving toward cities, overcrowding  ● Crime rates increased; fires were huge  ● Growing concern, fear, terror  ● England hires Sir Robert Peele  ○ Developed London Metropolitan Police  ○ Still use his model for our policing methods  ○ Father of modern policing  ○ In US:  ■ Three main aspects of American policing came from English tradition  ● Limited authority  ● Local control  ● Fragmented organization  ■ Colonies based CJ system on ecclesiastical law  ● Church made law   ● Boston decided they would have a police force  ● Wasn’t enough work police force  ● Gave police other social duties  ○ Garbage man  ○ Empty toilets  ○ In the west vigilante justice took over  ■ No due process, rash  ■ They had sherriff position, but after the civil war the US government  appointed US Marshals to help enforce law in the west  ■ Developed Possee comitatus  ● Allowed few law enforcement to deputize civilians to help them  ○ South  ■ Slave Patrolling civilians   ● Stopping any blacks not on plantations to make sure thye  aren’t running, communicating  ■ Passed Black Codes  ● After civil war to repress freed slaves  ● Prohibiting interracial marriage  ○ They didn’t want money from a white person be  transferred to a black  ○ Therefore can’t have children  ● Preaching Gospel without license  ○ Blacks would point out injustices white people were  doing in the Bible and the whites got mad  ○ If they preach without license, would go to jail  ○ If they applied for a license, they could be denied  ● Prohibiting blacks from renting land in the cities  ○ If you can’t rent land but wanted a business in the  city, you had to buy the land  ○ You couldn’t buy it unless you had a business  making money  ○ Made it practically impossible for blacks to have  thriving business  ○ Some had incredible talents to get people to go  farther away   ● Negro Seamen's Act  ○ Merchant marines; work on boats  ○ Some workers came up from up north; accustomed  to a little more freedom and equality  ○ Whites worried that they would start telling other  blacks about how good they had it; didn’t want  them to have any connections  ○ Made it illegal for a Negro seaman to get off boat in  harbor  ■ Plessey vs. Ferguson (1896)  ● Fighting over right to education and certain services  ● US Supreme COurt established Separate but Equal  doctrine  ○ US sanctioned separation of races  ■ Brown vs. Board of Education (1957)  ● Overturned Plessey case  ● Fighting over right to be equally educated  ● Might have schools, but blacks taught blacks who only had  maybe up to an 8th grade education level  ● Fighting over ability to get into school  ○ One jurisdiction had 33 buses to get whites to  school  ○ Blacks had to walk  ● Separate but equal is inherently unequal  ● Integration  ● The policing of the north east is divided into segments  ○ The political Era (1840­1920)  ■ Close ties between police and political leaders­not civilians  ■ Many officers worked to get more votes for favorite politicians  ■ Most major cities had police departments, headed by a chief  (appointed by mayor)  ■ The city was divided into precincts  ■ Police also helped in soup kitchens, regulated public health, etc  ○ Professional Model Era (1920­1970)  ■ Influenced by progressives who  wanted a more efficient  government and reduce the influence of party politics (favoritism)  ■ August Vollmer was crucial in setting up the model:  ● Police made into professional force, separate from political  parties  ● Members should be trained, disciplines, and organized  ● Laws should be enforced equally  ● The force should use new technology  ● Personal procedures should be based on merit  ● Main task of the force should be fighting crime  ■ This greatly reduced police involvement in social works  ■ During this period motorized police forces, fingerprinting, radio  communication, and rapid response came to be  ■ FOP and IACP formed  ○ Community Policing Era: 1970­present  ■ Emphasis on keeping order and providing services to community  ■ Research found that  ● Increasing number of police in an area does little affect on  crime rate  ● Rapid response to calls for service did not greatly increase  arrest rate  ● Improving the percentage of crimes solved proved to be  difficult  ■ Base their approach on three assumptions:  ● Neighborhood disorder creates fear  ● Untended disorderly behavior is a signal that the  community does not care  ● If police are to deal with disorder, they must rely on citizens  for assistance  ■ Related is the problem­oriented policing­ police should identify the  underlying causes of problems so they can reduce disorder and  fear of crime  ● Policing has always blamed crime problems on immigrants, lower classes  ● Policing today  ○ Intelligence­led policing:  ■ Emphasis on gathering, analyzing, and sharing information while  incorporating those elements into community policing  ■ Based on cooperation of law enforcement agencies and officials  ○ Federal law enforcement  ■ Has jurisdiction over US and its territories (Puerto Rico, Virgin  Islands)  ■ Military in military bases (even if not on US territory)  ■ Tribal police on Indian reservations  ■ US Postal Inspection Service  ■ US Secret Service  ● Protect president and dignitaries  ■ FBI: investigate violations of federal law  ■ ATF­ alcohol, tobacco, firearms  ● Originally a taxing agency after prohibition  ● Became a law enforcement agency  ● Right to enforce laws  ■ DEA­ drug enforcement agency  ● About 5,000 agents  ○ State Law enforcement  ■ Highway patrol  ● Traffic law enforcement but can do investigation  ● Statewide jurisdiction  ■ Sheriff’s office  ● County law enforcement  ● Deputies  ● Jail­ guards  ● County wide jurisdiction  ● Enforce state and local laws  ■ Municipal Police  ● City wide jurisdiction  ● Traffic enforcement  ● Police patrols and investigations  ■ Special police agencies  ● Airport police  ● Transit police  ○ Law enforcement on subways, stations, etc  ● Campus police 


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