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CHM 114-general Chemistry for Engineers

by: Mohammad Notetaker

CHM 114-general Chemistry for Engineers CHM 114

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Mohammad Notetaker

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Investigation for a lab for CHM114
General Chemistry for Engrs
Dr. Windman
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mohammad Notetaker on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 114 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Windman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry for Engrs in Life Sciences at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
Name:                                                                                                  Sec. No.:   Group No.:                                                                                       CHM 114 Investigation 6: “What’s in the Bottles?” This worksheet does not replace good lab notebook keeping! ALL INFORMATION RECORDED ON THIS WORKSHEET SHOULD COME FROM THE BOOK, PRELAB NOTES, THE LAB MANUAL AND EXPERIMENTAL VALUES/CALCULATIONS YOU HAVE RECORDED IN YOUR NOTEBOOK! Part 1:  Write observations in the table provided when certain solutions are combined. 1. Circle the set of your group: RED BLUE YELLOW II                     III                      IV                   V ___________ 2. Labels on the bottles: I   3. Table 1: Experiment summary Label A/B/N* I     N       II     U       III     C      IV     E        V     E              Strong Smell + N Smell/Color / A White  Temp Drop No Reaction No Reaction I     N              N/A precipitate B Temp Rise Yellow­Brown  No Reaction II     U              N/A Precipitate N Clear, No  No Reaction III     C             N/A Reaction N White  IV     E              N/A Precipitate A V     i               N/A A/B/N is for Acidic/Basic/Neutral (Litmus Paper (blue and red):  pH > 8.3, Red → Blue; pH < 4.5, Blue → Red) + Smell/Color is for solutions in the bottles, not for reaction. Use terms like “No Reaction”, “White Solid”, “Brown Solid”, “Heat” etc. to fill the reaction results. 4.   From your observed results in the experiment, which of the following combinations showed  evidence of a chemical reaction? (circle all that apply) Hint: there can be up to 6 for any given set. Remember: Evidence of a reaction occurring can include formation of a solid precipitate, evolution or  absorption of heat, change in color, formation of gas, change in pH. Iand II    I and III     I and IV I and V II and III II and IV II and V III and IV  III and V IV and V 1  Created by Ran LuiRevised Sp 16 Beatriz I. Smith Part 2: Write balanced molecular, ionic and net ionic chemical equations for the following word  problem. Include physical states of all reactants and products.  Try out the experiment and  determine the mass % of sodium bicarbonate and the limiting reactant. 5.Rxn: When 1 tablet of solid Alka Seltzer (Sodium bicarbonate, 3aHCO ) is added to excess 1M  hydrochloric acid, all of the Alka Seltzer dissolves, and solid sodium chloride, dihydrogen monoxide and  carbon dioxide gas are produced.    a. Which reactant was the limiting reactant (the reactant that ran out first)?   __________ b. What type of reaction is this? ___________________ c. TRY IT OUT:  Fill in the following data table with your experimental data and calculated results.  Your experimental data can be copied into shaded cells; the other cells must be calculated from these  numbers. Beaker+watch Final CO 2 Mass % Avg 1M glass+ Mass of Total Rxn Evolve NaHCO 3 of  Mass % HCl 1 Tablet Initial Mixtur Reacted Trial Stir bar+HCl Mass e d NaHCO 3 per tablet mL g g g mass g g % % g 1 2 3 Determine mass of CO 2 oduced in grams (g), which was lost as gas.   _______________ Use this number to find the mass of NaHC3  that must have reacted. ¿ ¿ ¿ 1molCO 2 1molNaHCO 3 84.00661gNaHCO 3 ¿¿gCO ×2 × × = ¿aHCO 3 44.0095gCO 2 1molCO 2 1mol NaHCO 3 Use mass of NaHCO  3eacted to find mass % of NaHCO3 in the tablet gNaHCO ne3tralized m= ×100 mass of onetablet d. What evidence/observations do you have that this reaction took place?  e. Will the reaction start again if additional Alka­Seltzer is added? Why or why not? f. Molecular equation:   g. Ionic equation:  h. Net ionic equation:   Part 3:  For the following problems, write balanced molecular, ionic and net ionic chemical equations for each the following word problems. Include physical states of all reactants  and products.   6.Rxn: When aqueous lead (II) nitrate is added to aqueous ammonium hydroxide, predict the products and use  the solubility rules to find their physical states. Molecular equation: Ionic equation:  Net ionic equation: Does the reaction take place?                          Type of reaction:   7.Rxn: When sodium hydroxide is added to acetic acid, predict the products and use the solubility rules to find their physical states.  Molecular equation: Ionic equation:  Net ionic equation: Does the reaction take place?                          Type of reaction:   8.  Rxn: When aqueous lithium hydroxide is added to aqueous sodium nitrate, predict the products and use the  solubility rules to find their physical states. Molecular equation: Ionic equation:  Net ionic equation: Does the reaction take place?                          Type of reaction:   USE AS REFERENCE TO COMPLETE PROBLEMS ABOVE Important Reaction (Rxn) Definitions:  I. Decomposition Rxn:    one compound reactant breaks down (decomposes) into two or more simpler substances II. Combination (aka Synthesis) Rxn: two or more substances combine to react to form one compound (opposite of decomposition) III. Single Replacement (aka Single Exchange) Rxn: one element replaces another element in a compound IV. Double Replacement (aka Double Exchange) Rxn: parts of two reacting species swap places to form two new compounds     Precipitation Rxn: a special type of replacement reaction in which two compounds in aqueous      solution react to form an insoluble (solid) product     Acid/Base Neutralization Rxn: a special type of replacement reaction in which an acid and a base in         solution produce salt and water as the products         Acid:  substances capable of donating H  ions when dissolved in water +  ­         Base: substances capable of accepting H or producing OH  ions when dissolved in water         Salt: ionic compounds formed by replacing H  in an acid by a metal cation V. Combustion Rxn: reaction that proceeds with the evolution of heat and a flame or glow (most involve burning a substance in the presence of oxygen)       Common hydrocarbon combustion reactions involve reaction with oxygen to produce CO  and H O. 2 2 Useful Information: Writing Molecular, Complete Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations Given:                                 sodium sulfate reacts with barium chloride Given two aqueous salts, determine the balanced equation for the reaction, and write the complete ionic and net ionic equations. A. Determine the balanced “molecular” equation for the reaction. [Typically, soluble ionic compounds are  involved, but the step for writing the balanced equation is still referred to as writing the balanced molecular  equation.]       sodium   ­  Na + 2­     sulfate    ­  S4        Step 1: Determine the ions that are involved and their charges.     barium   ­  Ba 2+     chloride ­  Cl­ Step 2: Balance the formula units for the reactants to make neutral ionic compounds using subscripts with the lowest common multiple of cations and anions. [ex: For sodium sulfate, the lowest multiple of sodium  to sulfate for the formula to be neutral is two sodium ions (1+) for every sulfate (2­).]  Also determine the  physical state of the reactants. (s, l, g, aq) Refer to your solubility guidelines (Table 4.1) to confirm that the reactants are soluble in water. Reactants:   Na SO2  (4q)    +     BaCl  (a2)    Step 3: Use appropriate subscripts to balance the formula units for the products that would form from the  double replacement. [Both products in this case are neutral with a 1:1 ratio.] Refer to your solubility guidelines to determine the physical state of the products.   Products:      NaCl  (aq)      +    BaSO  4(s)          Step 4: Once the formula units are balanced, THEN use coefficients balance how many of   each reactant  is needed and how many of each product forms such that both sides contain the same number of each atom involved. This is your balanced molecular equation.  2 ____Na SO  (aq)   +      ____BaCl  (aq)            ____NaCl  (aq)     +      ____ BaSO (s) 2 4 2 4  B. Write the complete ionic equation. Always include charges and physical states.    Note:  Subscripts in the formula unit become coefficients. [Na  is not correct; ther2 are 2 Na ions.] +  Coefficients in front of a formula unit are communicative. [2 NaCl means 2 Na and 2 Cl ions] +  ­  Solid barium sulfate does not dissociate into its ions in solution; it is a solid precipitate. 2Na (aq)  +  SO  (aq) +  Ba  (aq) +  2Cl (aq)       2Na (aq)  +  2Cl (aq) +  BaSO (s) ­ 4 4  C. Write the net ionic equation.  The ions that are present both in the reactant and product that undergo no  reaction are called spectator ions. They are not included in the net ionic equation. SO  (aq) + Ba  (aq)         BaSO (s) 4 4 


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