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HIST-2020-001 Notes, Week 5

by: Andrew Hull

HIST-2020-001 Notes, Week 5 HIST-2020-002

Andrew Hull
GPA 3.59

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Okay, so the last set of notes weren't the conclusion of the Gilded Age. And neither are these. The Gilded Age continues: U.S. involvement in China and Cuba.
U.S. History Since 1877
Dr. Daniel Newcomer
Class Notes
The Gilded Age, U.S. History, China, Cuba
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrew Hull on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST-2020-002 at East Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Daniel Newcomer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see U.S. History Since 1877 in History at East Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
FOREIGN AFFAIRS ● 1890s: U.S. became more interactive with foreign nations ○ previously inuslar ○ American business expanded operations beyond country’s  border’s ● 1898: War with Spain ● 1916­1917: World War I AGE OF IMPERIALISM ● 1870­1914 ○ ended with the beginning of World War I ○ result of imperialist tensions ● European expansion ○ British Empire/France/Germany ○ Germany became unified ○ overseas colonies ○ for economic gains ● U.S. foreign policy at this time was largely a response to European imperialism EUROPEAN EXPANSION ● search for markets/materials/labor ○ industrial overproduction ● had depleted natural resources ○ expanded to replenish supplies ● military occupation ○ 80% of world’s population lived in occupied territories by 1914 ● major cause of World War I BRITISH IMPERIALISM ● having been a British colony, the U.S. was always interested in the activities of  Great Britain ○ became suspicious of Britain’s landgrabbing ○ did they have aspirations of reconquering the U.S.? ● India/Africa/Asia ● Social Darwinist rationale ○ they had the “right” to dominate because British civilization had  “evolved” further than other civilizations ○ Rudyard Kipling coined the phrase “White Man’s Burden” ○ the British had an obligation to civilize the world/”enlighten” lesser  evolved nations ● indigenous populations of occupied lands saw this as exploitation TOUGH QUESTIONS ● was imperialism a threat to U.S.? ● two sides to the argument ● oppose imperialism ○ take steps to protect self and other from colonialism ○ they had been under the boot of imperialism before ● engage in imperialism ○ it was time for U.S. to take its place as a world power ○ needed to expand in order to keep pace with Old World powers U.S. ISOLATIONISM ● 1823: Monroe Doctrine ○ traditional foreign policy ○ statement of solidarity with other American countries ● 1810­1824: Latin American countries gained independence from Spain/Portugal ○ modeled new governments after U.S. ● Monroe Doctrine proposed that the republic was optimal form of government for  the Americas ○ believed that it came about as result of isolation from Europe ○ U.S. would then oppose European imperialism in the Americas  and would assist other American countries threatened by it ○ wanted to protect American independence ● self­determination ● Americans would stay out of Europe/Europeans would stay out of the Americas DEFENSE ● people began asking what U.S. would do in case Europeans did, in fact, invade  the Americas ● 1890s: Alfred Thayer Mahan ○ navy admiral ○ wrote a series of treatises on U.S. defense policy ○ The Influence of Sea Power on History ○ compared U.S. to Rome ○ the reason Rome fell was because their navy wasn’t strong  enough ● 1900: U.S. wound up with the 3rd largest navy in the world as a result of Mahan’s philosophy ● this ideology also spawned idea of Panama Canal ○ to allow easy movement of naval forces from coast to coast ○ sailing all the way around South America was outrageously  impractical U.S. EXPANSION AND DEMOCRACY ● U.S. had, in fact, expanded greatly in the past fifty years ● was westward expansion imperialism? ● 1983: Frederick Jackson Turner ○ “Frontier Thesis” ○ U.S. didn’t create an empire in the West, it created a democracy ○ even though it totally was occupation of Native Americans’  territory ○ did the end of the frontier mean the end of democracy’s spread? ○ people began to equate territorial expansion with spread of  democracy ○ this isn’t what Turner meant, but people took their interpretations  and ran with them U.S. INTERESTS ABROAD ● grew dramatically in Gilded Age ● businesses were seeking foreign markets ● 1890: U.S. businesses invested $1 billion in foreign trade ● Caribbean/Latin America/Chine ● business abroad = U.S. culture abroad = democracy abroad ○ frightening parallel to European imperialism RISKY BUSINESS ● Mexico ○ wanted to model itself after U.S. ○ asked U.S. businesses to come to Mexico and establish  operations ○ 1900: U.S. businesses had invested $1.5 billion ● Central America ○ political instability was risky ● people began asking what would happen if these investments dried up ● what was at stake? ○ how much investment abroad was too risky? ○ should U.S. military protect American investments? AGE OF IMPERIALISM ● 1870­1917 ● posed new challenges ● isolation or expansion? ○ businesses began expanding beyond borders anyway ○ people began asking if “the flag should follow the dollar” ● relationships with China/Cuba AMERICA’S NEW FRONTIERS ● 1867: purchase of Alaska ○ from Russia ○ Alaska had gold/oil ○ unfortunately, Alaska was so far removed from mainland U.S. that  public didn’t really care about it ● 1894: Hawai’i ○ home to many American sugar plantations ○ had been invited by Queen Liliukalani ○ tariffs made it expensive for sugar planters to sell to U.S. ○ organized hostile takeover of Hawai’i, ending in U.S. annexation ○ flag followed the dollar THE RACE FOR CHINA ● a market coveted by world powers ○ Germany/Britain/France/Russia/Japan ○ these powers did see China as an independent nation, not a  potential colony ● created “spheres of influence” ○ areas exclusive to foreign powers where they could trade/build ○ functionally, spheres of influence were colonies ● United States ○ wanted opportunity to trade in China ○ but European countries had already staked their claims and  closed China’s doors ○ U.S. demanded free trade in China ○ 1899: Secretary of State John Hay proposed Open Door Policy ○ first time that U.S. had dictated policy to big European powers ○ eventually, the European powers agreed to this ● of course, no one was thinking about what the Chinese wanted CULTURE CLASH ● “civilizing mission” ○ justification for colonization ○ bring culture (Christianity) to Asia ○ governments harnessed enthusiasm of Christian missionaries ● governments thought this would soften Chinese attitudes toward Euro­American  interests ● Josiah Strong: notable American missionary ● results were mixed/often confrontational ○ many Chinese simply weren’t interested in adopting Western  worldviews ○ missionaries overlooked 2,000 years of Chinese history ○ ignorant of Chinese culture, which didn’t need America’s  “guidance”/”enlightenment” ACCESS TO CHINA ● 1898­1901: WIlliam McKinley ○ pushed Open Door ○ European powers ignored him ● 1900: Boxer Rebellion ○ Chinese anti­foreign revolt ○ targeted missionaries in particular ● U.S.: we told you so ○ finally European powers agreed to stop trying to colonize China ○ adopted Open Door Policy ● first time U.S. was able to directly influence European powers with policy ○ sign that they were becoming world power ○ considered big victory­­U.S. was able to solve issue with  diplomacy ○ didn’t last long, though ○ Europeans just reverted to colonialism a few years later PROTECTING TRADE IN THE AMERICAS ● Caribbean/Central America ○ United Fruit Company very active in Nicuaragua, which had a  weak/unstable government ○ they bought so much land that people began asking whether  United Fruit Company or Nicaraguan government had more power ○ hence, “Banana Republic ● 1890s: U.S. involvement peaks with War against Spain over Cuba TROUBLE IN CUBA ● 1495­1898: Spanish colony ○ sugar plantations ○ Spanish landlords/Afro­Cuban majority ● by 1890s, Cuba was one of last colonies of failing Spanish empire ● Afro­Cuban majority wanted independence from Spain ○ wanted to abolish slavery as well TEN YEARS WAR ● 1866­1878 ● Cuban majority fought Spanish for independence ● lower class Cubans and even tiny middle class rose up against Spanish ● aftermath ○ finally, after ten years, Spanish quelled rebellion ○ sugar plantations had been totally destroyed ● Spain wanted to retain Cuba, but didn’t know how to rebuild it ○ Spaniards didn’t want to go to Cuba ○ so Spanish invited U.S. investors to rebuild sugar plantations ○ U.S. invested $50 million ● 1886: abolition ○ pushed by U.S. investors, who didn’t want stigma of slavery  hanging over their heads THE NEW CUBA ● 1878­1898 ● Spain still governed island ● Cuban people wanted independence ● American were main economic power ○ didn’t want to get caught in the middle of a Cuban/Spanish conflict ○ just wanted to run their businesses CUBAN REVOLUTION ● 1895­1898 ● massive conflict ● not just lower class, but cityfolk got involved ● Jose Martin ○ Cuban author/intellectual ○ became organizer of rebellion ○ actually died while storming a beach ● Americans needed to stabilize situation to protect their investment YELLOW JOURNALISM ● twisting facts to get people to interpret events one way ○ only reporting one side of issue ● American press intervened ○ attempted to sway public opinion toward helping Cubans ● William Randolph Hearst’s Evening Journal ● Joseph Pulitzer’s The World ● both in competition for readers ○ saw Cuban Revolution as opportunity to spark reader interest ○ painted Spanish governor Valeriano Weyler as vicious tyrant ○ didn’t report atrocities on rebels’ side ○ or U.S. business interests ● eventually, Presiden McKinley gave into American public opinion ○ McKinley pressed Spanish to grant Cuba its independence ● Jingoism ○ press pushing for military involvement ○ argued that only way to stabilize Cuba was to send troops in ○ 1898: Enrique DeLome Letter ○ possibly faked letter to McKinley calling him a coward for not  sending troops into Spain ● McKinley continued pressuring Spain ● sent USS Maine to Cuba for diplomacy ○ 15 Feb 1898: ship exploded in the harbor ○ blamed on Spanish


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