Chem 1101, Lecture Notes
Chem 1101, Lecture Notes Chem 1110
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hanna Gibbs on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1110 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Dalbey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Lecture 8/30 Dr. Ross Dalbey Finishing Ch. 2 Exothermic: chemical change that transfers energy to its surroundings Endothermic: removes energy from its surroundings 2 Kinetic energy: energy that occurs during movement (K=.5mv ) Potential energy: energy that’s possessed by virtue of its position relative to another (Eg=mgh) o Energy stored in chemical bonds Mass-energy equivalence o Law of Conservation of Mass & Energy: total quantity of mass & energy in the universe is fixed and does not change o Law of Conservation of Mass: the total mass of the reactants in a chemical change is equal to the total mass of the products Phosphorus experiment by Antoine Lavoisier Disproved the Phlogisten Theory o Law of Conservation of Energy: the energy lost or used in one form is always exactly equal to the energy gained in another form. All energy gained (used) in the home is lost (generated) by the power plant. Chapter 3: Measurement & Chemical Calculations Scientific Notation B o A x 10 A = coefficient 10 = exponential B = exponent 5 E.g., 800,000 = 8 x 10 E.g., .000008 = 8 x 10 -6 E.g., .01 = 10-2 o Practice Volume of gasoline used in the US each year Standard Notation: 550,000,000,000 L 11 Scientific Notation: 5.5 x 10 L Conversion Factors o Dimensional Analysis 61 12 years months 1 year = 732 months 42.07 .6214 km mi 1 km Lecture 8/30 Dr. Ross Dalbey = x miles o Equivalency: two quantities that are equivalent in value 12 in = 1 ft o Conversion factor: equivalency expressed as a fraction 12 in/1ft Aren’t always exact E.g., 30 mph Any measure is inexact bc there is always error Three lines (like an E) means exact Solving a Quantitative Chemistry Problem o Steps Analyze: What is given & what is needed? Properties & units o E.g., distance & miles Identify: What equivalencies & conversion factors are needed? o E.g., How many miles in a kilometer? Construct: How will you set up the problem so that the units cancel? Set up dimensional analysis Check: Does the answer make sense? What did I learn? Units o SI Units: subset of metric units Mass = kilogram (kg) Length = meter (m) Time = seconds (s) Temperature = Kelvin (K) Amount of Substance = mole (mol) Lecture 8/30 Dr. Ross Dalbey o Prefixes can be placed in front of any unit to increase or decrease its size by factors of 10. Metric volume: liter (L) Smaller metric volume: milliliter (mL) o Mass: measure of the quantity of matter Mass of an object is always constant o Weight: measure of the force of gravitational attraction Weight on the moon is different than weight on earth o Length: measure of distance Meter: the distance that light travels in a vacuum in 1/299792458 seconds o Derived Unit: combination of two or more SI base units
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