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Ch 4 Psychology Notes

by: Samantha Bidinger

Ch 4 Psychology Notes Psych 1560

Samantha Bidinger

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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 4 - States of COnsciousness
General Psychology
Lindsay DeVicchio
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Bidinger on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1560 at Youngstown State University taught by Lindsay DeVicchio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology at Youngstown State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
Chapter 4 – States of Consciousness Consciousness: Awareness of sensations, thoughts, and feelings experienced; subjective understanding of environment and private internal world - Waking consciousness (awake and aware) - Altered states (sleeping and dreaming, drug use and medication) Stages of Sleep 1. Transition between wakefulness and sleep; low-amp brain waves 2. Slower and more regular wave pattern, momentary interruptions of sleep spindles 3. Slow brain waves w/ higher peaks, lower valleys of waves 4. Deepest stage, least responsive to outside stimulation REM Sleep Rapid eye movement sleep: Occupies 20% of an adult’s sleeping time, shallow sleep, when most dreams are able to be remembered - Increased heart rate, BP, and rate of breathing - Erections - Eye movements - Dreaming - Aids in learning and memory Rebound effect: REM-deprived sleepers spend significantly more time in REM sleep than normal Dreams Unconscious wish fulfillment theory: Dreams represent unconscious wishes the dreamers wish to see fulfilled (Freud) - Manifest content – info remembered and reported - Latent content – Underlying wishes of dreamer Dreams-for-survival theory: Dreams permit info that is critical for our daily survival Activation-synthesis theory: Brain produces electrical energy randomly during REM sleep (Hobson) Sleep Disturbances - Insomnia - Sleep Apnea - Night Terrors - Narcolepsy - Sleep talking - Sleepwalking Circadian Rhythms - Biological processes that occur regularly on an apporx 24-hr cycle - Controlled by suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) - Seasonal affective disorder: severe depression which increases during winter and decreases during rest of the year Daydreams - Fantasies constructed while awake - Waking consciousness - Often related to dreams during sleep Hypnosis – trancelike state in which one is highly susceptible to the suggestions of others - Divided consciousness: Division or disassociation of consciousness into two components that are simultaneous - Uses o Pain control o Reducing smoking o Psychological disorder treatment o Assisting in law enforcement o Athletic performance improvement Meditation - Technique for refocusing attention - Brings altered state of consciousness - Improves health due to biological changes produced Drug Use Psychoactive drugs: Drugs that influence a person’s emotions, perceptions, and behavior; results in an altered state of consciousness Addictive drugs: Drugs that produce a biological or psychological dependence; withdrawal leads to nearly irresistible craving for the drug - Reasons for drug use o Perceived pleasure from the experience o Escape from daily pressures of life o Attempt to achieve religious or spiritual state o Peer pressure o Genetic predispositions - Drug addiction is one of the most difficult things to modify Stimulants – drugs that have arousal effect on CNS - Causes rise in HR, BP, and muscular tension - Examples o Caffeine o Nicotine o Amphetamines  Methamphetamine (most dangerous street drug) o Cocaine Depressants – Drugs that slow down the nervous system (ex. Alcohol) - Effects o Emotionally and physically unstable o Poor judgement o Possible aggression o Impaired memory o Diminished brain processing o Slurred speech - 14 million in US have drinking problems - Alcoholism is dependence Barbiturates & Rophynol - Muscle relaxers - Anxiety meds - Barbiturates o Induce sleep, reduce stress o Sense of relaxation o Altered thinking, faulty judgement, and sluggishness - Rohypnol aka date rape drug Narcotics – Drugs that increase relaxation and relieve pain and anxiety - Morphine - Heroin - Methadone o Satisfies heroin user’s physiological cravings w/o providing a “high” o Oxycodone Hallucinogens – Produces hallucinations, or change in perceptual process - Marijuana o Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) - MDMA (ecstasy) - Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD or acid)


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