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Week 5 Notes

by: Jacob Edwards

Week 5 Notes 1030

Marketplace > Clemson University > BIO > 1030 > Week 5 Notes
Jacob Edwards
GPA 3.2

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General Biology
Dr. William Baldwin
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Edwards on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1030 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Baldwin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see General Biology in BIO at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
 Autotrophs o Make their own food o Archaea; lithotrophs, chemotrophs can use sulfur and other inorganics as an energy source o Do not consume organic molecules derived from other organisms o Photoautotrophs use energy from light to produce organic molecules  Heterotrophs o Consumers that feed on plants, animals, or decompose organic matter  Photosynthesis in plants o Occurs in chloroplasts, o Converts carbon dioxide and water into organic molecules o Releases oxygen o Chloroplasts are concentrated in the cells of the mesophyll, the green tissue of the inner leaf o Stomata are tiny pores in the leaf that allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to exit o Chlorophyll  Light absorbing pigment in chloroplast  Found in thylakoid membrane o Light reactions  Thylakoid membranes  Water is split, giving off oxygen as a byproduct  ATP is generated  Light energy is absorbed by the chlorophyll to drive the transfer + of electrons in water to the electron acceptor NADP o Calvin Cycle  Occurs in stroma  Called the dark reactions  Light independent  Assembles sugar molecules using carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide incorporation into organic compounds is called carbon fixation o Light reactions  Visible light is only a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum (380nm-750nm)  The wavelength I the distance between the crests of the waves o Chloroplasts contain different pigments that absorb different light wavelengths o Cell division  Is reproduction at cellular level  Requires the duplication of chromosomes  Sorts new sets of chromosomes into resulting pair of daughter cells  Mitosis  For reproduction of singe celled organisms  Meiosis  Sperm and egg production  Asexual reproduction  Identical offspring to parent cell  All genes inherited  Sexual reproduction  Similar traits to parents but has variations  Inheritance of unique sets of genes from both parents  Binary Fission  Done by prokaryotes  Chromosome of prokaryotes are o Singular circle strand of DNA o Much smaller than that of a eukaryote o Occurs in three steps  Eukaryotic Chromosomes  Made of chromatin  Consist of o One long DNA molecule o Proteins help maintain structure and control the activity of its genes  Eukaryote cells duplicate all their chromosomes before splitting o These are sister chromatids o Joined by a narrow part called the centromere


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