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Exam #2 Notes

by: Emma Nichter

Exam #2 Notes PSY 2410-101

Emma Nichter
GPA 3.7

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all of these notes are what is going to be on exam #2 on october 7th
Child & Adolescent Psychology
Dr. Michael Grant
Class Notes
Child, adolescent, Psychology, Infant, birth
25 ?




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Nichter on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2410-101 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Michael Grant in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Child & Adolescent Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Ohio University.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
Child & Adolescent Psych Notes – Exam #2  infertility o inability to conceive after 12 months of regular intercourse o 10-15% of couples in the US  behavior genetics o studies the degree & nature of behaviors hereditary basis  twin studies o intraclass correlation  correlation rates in traits between 2 twins o concordance rates  YES or NO  Do the twins have the trait or not? o ACE model  A = genes  C = common family phenotype environment  E = unique traits o Adoption studies  Investigate whether adopted children are more like their adoptive parents or biological parents Chapter 3 – Prenatal Development & Birth  Germinal period o First 2 weeks o Attachment of zygote to uterine wall o Implantation – 10-14 days after contraception  The embryo o Chorion- forms the placenta o Amnion- forms amniotic sac  Embryonic Period o 2-8 weeks after conception o organs begin to appear o zygote is now an embryo o Cell layers of the embryo  Endoderm  Ectoderm  Mesoderm  Important Embryonic developments o 3 week – neural tube th o 4 week- arm & leg buds, chambers of heart th th o 5 – 8 week – intestinal tract 8 weeks – organism weighs 1/30 ounce, 1 inch long  Organogenesis o The process of organ formation during first 2 months  Fetal period – 2- 9 months after contraception o Significant time periods:  3 months – fetus becomes active  end of 4 month – reflexes stronger, growth spurt  end of 5 month – structures of skin have formed th  end of 6 month – eyes & eyelids are complete, grasping reflex 2  end of 7 month – fetus is adding body fat, breathing begins  8 & 9 months – heart & kidneys, 20 inches & 7.5 lbs  Teratogen – any agent that causes a birth defect  Drugs  Pollutants  Depression  Disease  Advanced maternal age o Dose – the greater the dosage, the greater the effect o Time of Exposure – do more damage when they occur in certain points in development o Genetic susceptibility – genotype of pregnant mother & genotype of the fetus  Sensitivity during organogenesis o Probability of a structural defect is greatest during this time o 15-25 days post conception brain is most vulnerable  Senstivity during fetal period o Exposure more likely to stunt growth  Prescription & nonprescription drugs that are teratogens o Thalidomide- sleep aid & morning sickness  Causes first trimester defects  Shortened limbs o Antibiotics, acne drugs, hormones, diet pills, aspirin, caffeine  Fetal alcohol syndrome 3 o Facial deformities o Defective limbs, heart o Below average intelligence  Nicotine o Fetal deaths higher among smoking mothers o Lower birth weights o At risk for SIDS o Increased risk of respiratory problems  Cocaine o Reduced birth weight, length & head circumference o Impaired motor development @ 2 years old  Marijuana o Increased tremors & startle response o Poorer verbal & memory @ 4 years old o Linked to depressive symptoms @ 10 years old & marijuana use by age 14  Heroin o Withdrawal signs at birth  Tremors  Irritability  Abnormal crying  Disturbed sleep problems o Behavioral problems still present @ 1 year old o Attention deficits o Require immediate medical attention  Environmental hazards o Radiation: nuclear enviroments, xrays 4 o Chemicals: carbon monoxide, mercury, lead, pesticides o Heat: saunas, hot tubs  Genital herpes o Newborns can contract virus when they are being delivered o If there is an outbreak, a C-section will be performed  AIDS o A mother can infect her offspring  During gestation across placenta  During delivery through contact with maternal body fluids  During breastfeeding o Newborn can be:  Infected & symptomatic  Infected but asymptomatic  Not infected at all  Nutrition o Important factors  # of calories  levels of protein, vitamins, minerals  folic acid  deficiency is linked with neural tube defects, such as spina bifida  Stress o Can be transmitted to fetus o When experiences intense fears, anxiety…  Respiration 5  Glandular secretions, adrenaline o Irregular contractions, more difficult labor o Irregularities in babies oxygen supply or problems after birth  Adolescence o Mortality rate of infants born to adolescents is 2x that of kids born to mothers in their 20s  Immature reproductive systems  Poor nutrition  BIRTH o 3 stages  1 : lasts 12-24 hours - contractions, cervix opens to 4in  2 : 45 min – 1 hour – begins when babies head starts to move through birth canal  3 : Afterbirth – placenta umbilical cord detached  Fetus/newborn transition o Decreased oxygen supply when contractions compress placenta & ambilical cord  “Anoxia” o Large secretions of stress hormones help protect from Anoxia o Vernix caseosa (skin grease) protects against heat loss  Medications used during childbirth o Analgesia - to alleviate pain (tranquilizers) o Anesthesia – in last first-stage labor and during expulsion to block sensation  Tend to not use anestisia 6  Epidural – numbs woman from waist down o Oxytocics – synthetic hormones that stimulate contractions (Pitocin)  Cesarean Delivery o Performed when baby is going through birth canal backwards (breech) o Head too large o Vaginal bleeding o 32.8% US births o CDMR – cesarean delivery upon mother request (20%)  Low birth weight infants o Weighs less than 5.5 lbs  Very low – less than 3.5 lbs  Extremely low – less than 2 lbs o Increasing numbers in US in last 2 decades o High disk for infant death – 66% infant deaths among 7.6% of low birth weight infants  Pre-term and small infants o Preterm – born 3+ weeks early  Neurological development continues after birth  Sometimes due to having twins or triplets (multiple gestations) o Small – birth weight low  Less than 90% of all babies at same gestational age  Preterm or full-term  Long-term outcomes for low birth weight babies o Learning disabilities 7  ~50% of low birth weight babies o Attention deficit disorders o Breathing problems o Behavioral problems  APGAR test o Activity o Pulse o Grimace (reflexes) o Appearance o Respiration  Brazelton Neonatal behavioral assessment scale – 27 total items to assess o 24 hours – 36 hours after birth o Assesses neurological competence, motor activity, reflexes o Reactions to people o Cuddliness  Postpartum Period o About 6 weeks o Involution – 5-6 week period – time that it takes for uterus to return to pre-pregnancy size o Lose about 2 hours of sleep  Partpartum depression o Strong feelings of sadness, anxiety  Excessive worrying  Depression  Changes in appetite  Crying spells 8  Inability to sleep  Bonding o Close connection between parents & newborn o Encouraged by doctors  “rooming in” during hospital stay 9


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