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Psyc100 Lecture Notes

by: shamlin

Psyc100 Lecture Notes Psyc100



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Notes we covered through powerpoints in class
Social Psychology
Dylan Selterman
Class Notes
Lecture Notes
25 ?




Popular in Social Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 49 page Class Notes was uploaded by shamlin on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc100 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Dylan Selterman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Maryland - College Park.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
Psych 100 Class Notes #1 09/03/2015 ▯ What is Psychology?  Its what people do in their lives  What they are thinking and feeling  Human (animal) behavior (doing)  Mental processes (thinking/feeling) o “psyche” = life o “logos” = explanation ▯ Learning Applications:  Mnemonic devices o Please excuse my dear aunt sally  Images ▯ How do we know things?  Repeated exposure  Authority  Personal experience  Hypothesis testing; evidence ▯ Hindsight bias  “That’s OBVIOUS” o two equally plausible explanations given o only one has supporting evidence ▯ History of Psychology  Who was the first psychologist?  Ancient thinkers: o E.g., Plato, Aristotle o Descartes, Locke, Hume o Religious Leaders (Buddha)  Experimentalists (1800s, 1900s) o Pavlov, Watson, Skinner ▯ Plato  Plato: the mind is imprinted with all of the knowledge it needs ▯ Ancient Thought:  Aristotle: Para Psyche “mind”= “soul”  Galen: four “humors” o Sanguine: the blood, (air and liver), courage, hope and love o Choleric: yellow bile, (fire and gall bladder), bad temper and anger o Melancholic: black *** ▯ Related fields:  Philosophy (ideas and theories)  Biology (neuroscience, evolution)  Sociology (norms, trends)  Anthropology (human roots and animal traits)  Linguistics (communication)  Economics (consumer behavior)  Political science (voting, decisions) ▯ Schools of thought  Structuralism- introspection, experience o The idea that we can learn about the mind through direct personal experience o Earlier studies asked people to describe what was going on in their minds  Functionalism- aspects of particular parts of the mind o Different parts of the brain/mind serving different functions or roles  Psychodynamic- unconscious processes o Things that are happening below our conscious awareness but have an impact on our wellbeing or behavior  Behaviorism- attention to only observable behavior, and learning processes o Reinforcement and conditioning, only with what we can see  Cognitive/neuro- mind as a computer; biological bases of behavior o The mind is keeping some relative information and getting rid of other information, using the leftover info and some output  Socio-cultural- power of situations and environmental forces o Things in our environment that impact our behavior o Language, time of day, weather, what are the colors of the walls, etc. ▯ Big questions  Nature vs. Nurture o Innateness and experience o How much we can explain about behavior based on what people are born with vs. what is learned through experience  Free will vs. determinism o Control of outcomes  Conscious vs. implicit o Processes- awareness ▯ Level of analysis  Lower: biological o E.g., genetic predictors of alcoholism  Middle: interpersonal o E.g., peer pressure to drink  Upper: cultural o E.g., prevalence, legal status, advertising ▯ Evolutionary psychology  Natural, sexual, and artificial selection  Reproductive fitness, adaption o Thoughts and behaviors can be acquired  How do we study this? o Fossil record o Cross-cultural similarities  Hunter-gatherer tribes o Animal behavior  Something about our minds that were working that what is adaptive o If it was adaptive then it got passed on  What sets humans apart from other animals? o Sophisticated communication/language o Extreme empathy o Extended immaturity (development)  Learning Bias o Mind has a template, not blank state  Guides learning and relationships  Contrast to “fixed action patterns”  Flexibility to different social environments ▯ Socio-cultural Theory  Groups develop norms (why humans are strange, quirkiness) o Not innate or adaptive o Not conditioned (often automatic) o Not rational (ex: academic regalia) o Often easily changeable  What is ‘abnormal’? o Whatever is different/non-normative o Whatever is destructive o Whatever is painful o Whatever the group doesn’t tolerate ▯ Social Cognitive Theory  Humans are going to develop schemas  Schemas determine activity o Beliefs, knowledge (facts) o Attitudes (emotional reactions) o Memories (experience) o Mindset (expectations, motivations)  When a schema is formed, it influences what people do o EX: you had a bad experience with roller coasters when you were young now whenever you see roller coasters it triggers that feeling and you are terrified o They guide behaviors through expectations, memories, mindsets  Cognitive Psychology o Information processing o Mind=a computer  Senses generate input, behavior is output  Information is filtered, organized  Inherent bias  Much is implicit ▯ ▯ Behavioral Psychology- Week 5 10/01/2015 ▯ Review sessions  Monday 6-8 Tydings 0117  Tuesday 4-6 Tydings 2111  Wednesday 6-8 Location TBD ▯ ▯ What is learning?  Relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior, resulting from experience o Only some of learning is academic o Learning is adaptive, helps navigation  Behaviorists: learning=conditioning o Ability to connect stimuli (in environment) with responses (behaviors and actions) o This is how the mind is shaped to form new associations with things in the environment  First thing you learn when you are born is interpersonal relationships o What and where their primary caregiver is Explicit o School based learning o Learn something and work for it Implicit o Learn something automatically by having stimuli repeatedly presented to you o Your mind absorbs it without having to put in any effort ▯ ▯ Conditioning:  Before conditioning o Food (UCS)  response  salivation (UCR)  Before conditioning o Whistle (NS)  response  No salivation (No CR)  Q: a drug detecting dog has learned to sit and bark when it smells cocaine. The smell of cocaine is now the: o Conditioned stimulus  Q: a drug detecting dog has learned to sit and bark when it smells cocaine. The act of barking at the smell of cocaine is o Conditioned response ▯ Classical Conditioning  Have you experienced the Garcia Effect? o Effect is only for taste, not other senses o Taste aversion o Someone has a fear of a food because of a bad experience that happened in the past  EX: Vodka  Evolutionary perspective o “Acquired” tastes  things that don’t have such a great sensation at first but we come to like them over time  EX: Brussels sprouts, alcohol  Alcohol is a social drink  It is paired with something positive so we come to like it more over time ▯ Extinction  Extinction is never 100% o Learning is faster the second time o You can learn something, then unlearn it, and learn it again o Even after a behavior is extinct, you may see it in the future because something reminds you of it – doesn’t last long ▯ Advertising  Associative learning  products/services o Take a product and pair it with something that provides a positive attitude  EX: Bacardi and naked woman poster  Can do the opposite—pair the competition with something negative ▯ Stimulus Generalization  What did Albert generalize the learned association to? o He was conditioned to have a phobia to the rat o He generalized that fear to other things that were small and other things that were white  Small animals, white objects  Associated Santa with mouse because it has similar properties  now fears Santa ▯ Stimulus Discrimination  Differentiating between stimuli o E.g., similar looking foods o Again, advantageous o Being able to discriminate between stimuli and their features we can avoid things that are not good for us ▯ Second-Order Conditioning nd  CS paired with 2 NS  CR o EX:  Christmas time and shopping  Thanksgiving and shopping  Black Friday and Christmas ▯ Phobias  Learning bias  Fear of particular stimulus o Evolution  predisposed to make it easier to learn fear of predators (e.g., snakes, spiders), heights (trees), or storms (e.g., lightning) o They aren’t born with it o Small threshold for it  all you need is just one negative experience and now you have this phobia  May not be a direct personal experience  Can be something that was told to you, etc. ▯ Systematic Desensitization  Also useful for PTSD treatment ▯ The concepts of behaviorism and behavior psychology can be applied in many different ways. ▯ ▯ Operant Conditioning  Thorndike: o Responses that create a pleasant outcome are likely to occur again, whereas responses that create an unpleasant outcome are less likely to occur again.  Pair behavior with reward o Positive reinforcement ▯ ▯ Conditioning Description Outcome Example Type Positive Add pleasant Behavior is Giving students a Reinforcement stimulus strengthened prize after they get an A on a test Negative Remove Behavior is Taking painkillers reinforcement unpleasant strengthened that eliminate stimulus pain increases the likelihood that you will take painkillers again Positive Add unpleasant Behavior is Giving students punishment stimulus weakened extra homework after they misbehave in class Negative Remove pleasant Behavior is Taking away punishment stimulus weakened teens’ computer after they miss curfew ▯ ▯ Effectiveness  Reinforcements are going to be more effective than punishments o Why?  Positive relationship to reward provider  Punishment based on coercion, creates adversarial relationship ▯ Shaping  The differential reinforcement of successive approximations towards a target behavior o What if your grade was based on a mouse tournament outcome?  The goal was to shape the students behavior  Need to use as little reinforcement as necessary so that you can avoid satiation o This occurs when whatever you are trying to train/shape isn’t interested anymore (if the rat ate too much and doesn’t want anymore) Schedule Definition Example Fixed-ratio Behavior is reinforced after a Factory workers who are specific number of responses paid according to the number of products they produce Variable-ratio Behavior is reinforced after Payoffs from slot an average, but machines and other unpredictable, number of games of chance responses Fixed-interval Behavior is reinforced for the People who earn a first response after a specific monthly salary amount of time has passed Variable-Interval ▯ ▯ Effectiveness  Variable >> fixed  Ratio >> interval ▯ Superstitious Behaviors  Skinner’s Experiment o Create superstitious beliefs in pigeons  Think about how it may apply to your own life and others around you ▯ ▯ Q: For every 2 days my girlfriend watches football with me, I will watch maters of sex with her. What reinforcement schedule is this?  HINT: 2 days  interval o If he said 2 games it would have been ratio  Answer: Fixed interval ▯ Q: My girlfriend wants me to speak in Hebrew with her, and every few times I speak in that language, she kisses me.  Answer: every few times  variable ratio  If said every 2 days  would have been fixed ratio ▯ ▯ Other types of learning  Modeling (observation and mimicry)  Insight: sudden understanding of a solution to a problem o Trial and error o Pause and reflect o Sudden inspiration  AKA latent learning ▯ Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment  Modeling increased the behavior ▯ Modeling ▯ Effectiveness  Although effective reinforcement and punishments are extrinsic, not intrinsic o Intrinsic motivation  value in the activity itself, not external conditions  Education o Gold stars, good grades, and praise o But what will motivate students after they leave the classroom?  More incentives? ▯ ▯ Psych Lecture Notes 09/24/2015 ▯ Q: Feeling that something is on the “tip of my tongue” illustrates…  A retrieval error ▯ Psychology as a Science  Experimentation and Data o Quantitative conclusions are less vulnerable to biases and intuition errors  Replication is vital o Reproduce findings  Being able to reproduce your own findings as well as other peoples findings  If you have an idea, you should be able to support your idea with data, but anyone else who is skeptical should be able to do experiments and get the same results  If you are the only one that can produce those results then that is a problem  means you are doing something unique (your methods) not about the problem itself o Eliminate subjectivity/bias ▯ Psychological Science  Goals: o Explain Variability  What is a variable?  Anything that can take on multiple values  Something that varies  Height, weight, religion, gender, hair color, education level, etc. o Study phenomena  E.g., marriage/divorce rate  Descriptive  Of the marriages that exist, a % of them will get divorced  Studying the thing itself o Study associations between variables  E.g., rates of depression in men/women  Analytic  Whether being male or female associates with depression  Associations between things ▯ Scientific Method Theory: o Explanation for a phenomena o Valuable because they help us understand things o Good theory will be testable and falsifiable  Testable  Design study’s that will test the theory  Falsifiable  Have the ability to show that it is invalid  Some outcome that will show our theory is wrong o Parsimonious o Leads to multiple predictions  Predictions in the real world (day to day life) and the laboratory o More broad – can be about a lot of different studies Hypothesis: o Hypothesis is more specific to the individual study you are conducting o Specific prediction for variables in a study ▯ Operationalization  Going from the conceptual variable to the operational variable for your study  Psychotherapy o Number of hours the patient has spend in psychotherapy  Anxiety o Anxiety concerns as reported by the patient Multi-trait, multi-method approach o There are a lot of different ways in which we can operationalize something o Surveys, observations, physiological  EX: Love  Can be an emotional process, personality process, cognitive, etc.  A lot of different ways in which the concept of love manifests in peoples lives  Can ask someone on a scale from 1-10 how much do they love this person “Conceptual” replication o same construct, different method o when you try to assess the same theory and same hypothesis but using different methods  EX: someone uses a survey and you decide to do a controlled experiment o We can combine all those studies into a meta-analysis Meta-analysis (k in hundreds) o Aggregate effect size o Increases our confidence in the theory o Gives us an overall affect if we combine across thousands of studies o This allows us to get an average affect size across all these measures and methods o This increases our confidence that the theory is correct ▯ Q: Which is an operational definition of self-esteem?  Survey items on self-worth in Likert-type format o This choice combines exactly what were looking to measure (self-worth) using a suvey (which is a type of method) ▯ Validity Construct Validity o Measurement o Mainly has to do with the quality of your measures  Just because someone gives you a survey on something, doesn’t mean it’s a good survey o The quality of the measure is the quality of the construct (idea or theory) Internal Validity o Refers to how well your controlling your experiments o Whether you are reducing the likelihood of an error in your experiment o Confounds, errors in experimentation External Validity o Refers to how well the results generalize to the rest of our world  Do people engage in these type of behaviors in their day to day life? o About what we can say about our conclusions that go beyond o Generalizability (population and behavior) Statistical Conclusion Validity o How correct were our inferences based on the data we collected o Inferences based on data ▯ Research Design  Correlation  based on continuous data  Correlational designs (continuous) o Variables are measured only  E.g., graffiti and crime  We cant conduct an experiment here because we cant get people to randomly do graffiti  Instead we do a correlation study, the amount of crime and the amount of graffiti  We can see whether an association exists but this doesn’t infer causation o Used when impossible/unethical to manipulate variables  Does not necessarily indicate causation o XY o YX o XY and YX o ZY and ZX  Un variable construct (theory) that is causing either X or Y  Third variable problem ▯ Correlations  High positive correlation o As one variable increases, so does the other o Both going the same direction  Negative o As one variable increases, the other one decreases o Going opposite directions  No correlation o Zero  Correlations range from -1 to 0 to +1 o +/- just tell what way its moving  Zero means NO relationship ▯ Experiments  Allow us to conclude causality Random Assignment: o It is the only thing that separates experiments from non- experiments o Not attributable to pre-existing variables  EX: being watched and generosity o Need this to have causality  Random sampling: (IS NOT random assignment) o How you recruit the people for your experiment o Don’t need to have this in order to have causality ▯ Example Religionaltruism? o Religiosity correlates with generosity o ExperimentAnonymous dictator  Manipulate IV (religious thoughts) using random assignment  IV- whether people have religious thoughts in their head  Measure DV (altruism) with money  Operationalization: word-scramble prime  Religious themed words (spirit, prophet)  Neutral themed words (table, chair)  Condition #1 higher money o What influences how much money people leave behind?  We have people in our study who are exposed to words that contain religious themes  In our control group we have neutral themed words (don’t have to do with religion)  IV- religious thoughts and it is operationalized by giving people an operationalization task by giving people the words (either religious or neutral), DV - altruism  The results of the study actually showed support for both hypothesis  Results of the first study showed that those who were with religious themed words left more money behind  Not necessarily the case that religion is causing people to leave more money behind (second study proved this) ▯ Controls Always need a comparison group in your study o Always needs at least two groups o No stimulus given o Neutral (similar) stimulus given  EX: neutral words in study above^ o Placebo stimulus given  Particularly in clinical psychology  EX: trying to cure people or help people with their disease  Give one group the experiment and one group nothing (makes them believe they will be helped) “Blindness” in studies o Participants unaware of hypothesis, condition  If they know what it is then they could try to prove or disprove what is going on  Could try to throw the results in one direction o Team unaware of p’s other info  Especially true in studies including coding  If the experimenter knows info about the p’s then it can change their opinions, etc. o RAs unaware of hypothesis, condition o If everyone is blind, it reduces the likelihood that some type of bias is going to throw off the results ▯ Experiments Within-subjects experiments: o All participants receive each treatment o Usually to measure change/improvement o Random assignment based on order o Condition 1,2,3 vs. 1,3,2 vs. 2,3,1  They all get the same stimuli but in different orders  Eliminates carry-over, practice effects ▯ Research Design Quasi-Experiments: o Dealing with groups but the groups are naturally occurring o They exist but we don’t manipulate them  EX: want to study race, age, etc. o Vs. correlational study  Quasi- looking at categories/groups  Correlational- looking at studies…?? Naturalistic Observations: o Don’t manipulate anything (just simply watch) o Coding  Have to create some type of coding system in order to translate the behavior we see  Whether or not they cry  Ex: watching behavior of people boarding the plane after 9/11 o Archival research Experience Sampling: o EX: diaries – write down your thoughts and feelings everyday and that will give us our results  Could put devices on people that could record their behavior Longitudinal studies: o Used to measure change in a developmental sense o Over long periods of times Case Studies: o With single individuals o Mostly in clinical psych  Rarely see them anymore (only very interesting cases) ▯ Psychological Science  Everything is probabilistic, not deterministic o Based on statistics, not laws o Nothing is ever proven!  Nothing is ever certain  Never use the word “prove” in this class  Can say “I demonstrated support for this hypothesis” o Why? Can’t isolate variables  As humans we are too complex  If you are trying to demonstrate that a personality trait correlates with something in the future  You can’t isolate that variable ▯ Q: A research team observes that male athletes curse more than female athletes. This is a…  Quasi-experiment o Because the groups are naturally occurring ▯ Research (not tested much on)** Written (lab) reports o Intro  Stating what is being tested (the hypothesis) o Method  Operationalization is in here o Results  Contains the numbers o Discussion  Conclusions (what can we say about human behavior, etc.) Journals, books o Psychological Science, Journal of Personality o Communication o Outreach? ▯ Research Ethics  Is this ethical? Who decides? Institutional Review Board (IRB) o Costs, benefits  Learn about disorders; vs. unpleasant stimuli  They measure if the benefits outweigh the costs o Deception, consent, debriefing (at end) o Care, freedom, privacy  How we treat participants  Want to protect their dignity  Want to protect peoples personal info  Want to protect them from harm o This is the committee that exists for every research group in the world…  Oversees each research’s design  Decides whether its worth it Facebook and OKCupid experiments o Facebook:  They took a group of 700,000 fb users and randomly assigned them to a group whose newsfeeds had more positive words and thoughts  Lead people to feel more positive  There was an uproar because people didn’t give consent  There was an outcry because of ethics o OKCupid:  Dating website  Some people saw a match with 90% and some with 30%  People were more likely to choose someone they had a bigger % with  Concern was the ethics of not informing people and getting their consent ▯ ▯ Biological Foundations 11/01/2015 ▯ A note on the brain:  Holisitc Perspective o All of the brain does everything  Certain regions “specialize,” but not 100%  Involves intense amounts of communication  Plasticity o Repair, extend functions, esp. in response to learning/damage o The brain has an incredible ability to heal its self by adapting over time o Some brain areas will accommodate the lack of function for others  Filling in for other parts  Brain processes objective information o But this is only a small fraction  Most of the human brain’s activity is geared toward simulating the world o This is response for most of our suffering…  The brain is influenced by social factors o Social environment brain development (maturity), regulation, output o It is not the primary source of a causal change of events  We tend to think the brain is the source of things (emotions, behaviors) o Is the brain the true source? ▯ Go over textbook definitions of neurons/soma/dendrites/etc. ▯ Neurotransmitters:  Over 100 billion transmitters in the brain  A neuron can have over 1000 dendrites  Over 100 different types of neurotransmitters have been identified ▯ Drugs:  Binds to receptor cites on dendrites o Causing excitation or inhibition  Agonist o Behaves like neurotransmitters o E.g., cocaine  dopamine  When you ingest cocaine it literally mimics dopamine  Antagonist o Stops normal neurotransmitter effects o E.g., curare (poison)  stops acetylcholine  It stops processes normally happening in humans that allow muscular movement  causes paralysis and death ▯ Neurotransmitter:  Acetylcholine o Stimulates muscle contractions, memory, sleeping/dreaming o Lowers Alzheimer’s disease, nicotine is agonist  Dopamine o Movement, motivation, emotion, reward/pleasure, love o Increases schizophrenia o Lowers Parkinson’s disease  Endorphins o Response to vigorous exercise, orgasm, spicy foods o Pain relief, found in opium, morphine, and heroin  GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) o Major inhibitory neurotransmitter o Lowers involuntary motor actions, tremors, seizures o Alcohol increases GABA, inhibits nervous system  Glutamate o Common excitatory neurotransmitter (present in more than 90% of synapses) o High levels of Glutamate can cause overstimulation, migraines  Serotonin o Mood, appetite, sleep, aggression o Lowers anxiety (SSRIs) prevent reuptake ▯ Neuropeptides:  Opioids o Buffer stress, reduce pain, produce pleasure o Includes endorphins Runner’s high  Oxytocin o Promotes nurturing (kids/couples) o Women will have higher levels o Increases aggression under threat  Vasopressin o Pair bonding, social monogamy o Induce aggression toward romantic rivals  Cortisol o Released during stress response, stimulates amygdala, inhibits hippocampus o Chronic stress can lead to lower levels, bad for coping ▯ Three Stages of Brain Evolution:  Reptilian: o Brainstem, cerebellum, hypothalamus o Reactive and reflexive  avoid hazards  Most crucial for life, cant live without  First things animals in the world did (avoid hazards)  Mammalian: o Limbic system, cingulate, early cortex o Memory, emotion, social behavior  approach rewards  Pleasurable  Approaching things that are good for you and learning about which things are bad and which are good  Human: o Massive cerebral cortex o Abstract thought, language, cooperative planning, empathy  higher order thinking (Calculus) Bad >> Good:  “Bad is stronger than good” o Bad things weigh more on our minds than good things o “The quick and the dead”  if people are going to survive, they need to learn how to avoid danger before they approach good thigns o Loss/risk aversion  Loss aversion – it feels worse to lose 100$ than it is to gain 100$, think about how much psychologically changes in a person o Leanred helplessness & anxiety – easier to learn  Those things are easier to learn relative to happy things (have good working relationships)- tragic that it is easier for us to learn to be helpless but it is true o Bad info about others carries more weight than good info ▯ Brain Regions:  Brain stem: o Oldest part of the brain, most crucial for basic life function (heartbeat, breathing) o Medulla- most essential (others above can be removed) o Pons- walking, balance  Limbic system: o Amygdala- “alarm bell”, fear, emotional memories o Hippocampus- long-term memory storage, memory encoding  Hippo on Campus (will remember it for a long time)  Cerebral Cortex: o Consciousness, critical thinking, moral, judgment o Language, complex skills, create tools, and construct large social groups  This is what allows us to go to the moon, have the UMD ▯ Synestheia: ▯ Brain Damage:  Language is lateralized in the left hemisphere  Broca’s Aphasia – language production o Ability to form words  Wernicke’s Aphasia – meaning o Have words that have coherent meanings  Constructional Apraxia o Right parietal lobe damage = unilateral neglect  Prosopagnosia – faces o Facial recognition ▯ “Split Brain” Syndrome: ▯ ▯ Relation and Perception 11/05/2015 ▯ Midterm November 12 : th  Consciousness  Sex & relationships  Biological foundations  Relation and perception ▯ Definitions:  Sensation: awareness resulting from the stimulator of a sense organ o The info as it hits our eyes, ears, skin  Perception: the organization and interpretation of sensations o What the brain does with that information  Psychophysics/biophysics: o Effects of physical stimulion sensory perceptions and mental states  Transduction: conversion of stimuli (detected by receptor cells) to electrical impulses, then transported to the brain (via neurons)  Absolute threshold o Bare minimum stimulus for detection o Signal detection analysis- distinguish true signals (hit) from noise (miss, false alarm) o Just noticeable difference – change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected by the organism  EX: You see the light, then the light changes (gets brighter), can you detect that change? ▯ Absolute Thresholds:  What can we detect? o Equivalent of candle flame 30 milesa way o 300,000 of different colors o sounds as low as 20 hertz (vibrations per second) and as high as 20,000 hertz o tsp of sugar dissolved  What about below the threshold? o Recall: priming  When idea is primed in the mind, it usually comes from some stimulus outside of the conscious mind o However…  Effects are short-lived  What can’t we do? o Dogs, bats, whales, rodents, all have much better hearing, smell, sight o Birds can see UV light and can sense the earth’s magnetic field o Cats navigate in darkness using their whiskers ▯ Evolutionary Perspective:  Response bias o Favor false alarms over misses  Would rather think something is there and get it wrong then miss it completely o Risk aversion  Better to flee if there’s danger  More moved by danger than loss  Applications for foreign policy, medicine o The Cheney 1% doctrine o Over-testing and positive diagnosis ▯ Seeing Patterns?:  Pareidolia- make shapes out of random objects (e.g., seeing animals in clouds) o Our minds try to make sense out of it o We want to see meaning in things that are meaningless in our day-to-day lives  Autokinetic effect o Put yourself in a dark room (completely) and turn on a very small flashlight, if you look at the light you will perceive it to be moving (it is a false positive)  Survival/adaptive value? o Predator detection ▯ Detection Bias:  Quantities are relative to: o The stimulus  The thing were actually trying to understand (food, quantity of people, etc.) o Your situation/background  If its fall, and in the 60s and then drops to 40s, it will seem really cold relative to the spring when its 20 then jumps up to 40 and feels like summer o Other numbers  Two sodas ($3 and $5)  Two cell phones ($393 and $395) o Just noticeable difference is entirely relative  Based on other situation factors and other variables in the surrounding context ▯ Gestalt:  Whole >>> sum of parts  Gestalt Philosophy o Involves our brain filling in the gaps and making things whole ▯ Monocular Depth Cues: only need one eye to see them  Interposition: o When one object overlaps another  We perceive the object that is closer  Light and shadow: o Indent, extend o We perceive light most of the time to becoming from above o Picture with circles- if shadow is on bottom, we perceive it to be extended, if shadow is on top, we perceive it to be indented  Linear perspective: o Parallel lines  Converge in a distance  Relative size (smaller = further)  Ariel Perspective:  Texture Gradient: o Groups of objects appear denser as they move further away o Objects that are closer, we can see their texture more easily  Motion Parallax: o If you move (in a train or car), objects that are closer to you seem to be moving faster, objects that are farther away from you seem to be moving slower ▯ Binocular Depth Cues: relies on two eyes  Binocular disparity o Each eye gives us slightly a different image and puts the image together and judges the distance based on the disparities between the two views of the one image ▯ Sound and hearing:  Sound wave height (amplitude)=energy o Perceived as loudness (volume) o ▯ ▯ State of Consciousness 10/15/2015 ▯ Contents of Consciousness  Consciousness o Ambiguous definition o Awareness of a mental state  Introspection  Perceptions, thoughts, feelings, desires  Internal events vs. external environment  Internal- what is going on in your mind o Self-awareness  “I think, therefore I am” ▯ Functions of Consciousness  Aiding survival o If we are aware of what our mind is doing, we can have greater executive control, regulate our emotions, plan o Executive function, planning  Personal construction of reality o Your unique interpretation of a situation o Based on your personal experiences on what you believe to be true or not true about the world  Allows you to question what other people tell you  Cultural construction of reality o Shared consciousness o Shared by most group members o Jungian archetypes ▯ Contents of Consciousness  Freudian theory o Subconscious:  Mental energy; drive states  Thought the subconscious mind was in control of the conscious mind o Topographic model of the mind  CS, UCS, PCS o Structural model of the mind  ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  ID- based on the pleasure principle, wants stuff (food, sex, aggression, etc.)  SUPEREGO- based on cultural norms which regulate our behavior to stop the ID from going nuts ▯ Consciousness  Self-awareness (~18 months) o Knowing you exist independently from the external world  Knowing you are yourself and that your self is different from other stuff o Testing:  Forehead mark test  Put some kind of mark on their forehead and when the young toddler or animal looks in the mirror, it is going to want to wipe their forehead because they are recognizing themselves in their reflection (not looking at a different creature) o Develops first  Theory of mind (~4 years) o You are aware that not only you have a mind but that others have a mind as well that are separate and independent  That those other minds may have different information than yours o Testing:  Sally puts the ball into the basket and leaves the room for a minute to go to the bathroom, when gone Anne picks up the ball and puts the ball into a box  If child has theory of mind: sally will look in the basket because that’s what she knows  If she doesn’t have it: will look in box because that’s where we know ▯ What about Chimpanzees?  Do chimpanzees demonstrate theory of mind?  2nd experiment  nice & “mean” trainer  Banana is in 1 of 2 boxes  Deception indicates ToM ▯ Emotions: Arousal and Valence  Valence – position, emotions  ** Graph ▯ Emotions  Schachter and Singer’s 2-factor theory of emotion – interpretation of physiological changes o E.g. heart rate, perspiration, hormone levels o Experience arousal and interpret/label arousal o We are experiencing emotions and then trying to make sense of it ▯ The Bridge Study:  Dutton and Aron o Male participants cross footbridge o Female confederate gives participant their phone number o Do they call? o IV: crosses safer bridge o Experimental group: crosses a suspension bridge, high off the ground, meant to increase their arousal  More likely to call the girl ▯ Misattribution of Arousal  Optimal delay between arousal and emotional response to create a misattribution o Participants pedal exercise for 1 minute o Watch an erotic film (randomly assigned- different groups)  1 minute after exercise  5 minutes after exercise  9 minutes after exercise o Rated sexual arousal in response to film  Greatest sexual arousal was in 5 minute group  Not too much time and not too little either  After 1 minute, there is not enough time to misattribute the arousal because they know they just exercised  After 9 minutes, there is no arousal left, nothing left to misattribute, already turned back to baseline, heart rate went down, etc.  Polarization effect o Misattribution amplifies natural inclinations  If person initially finds you unattractive, that feeling will be even stronger  15 seconds or 2 minutes  both groups are shown a picture of someone who is either very attractive or not  attractive people are rated better than unattractive  at 2 minutes: o attractive is rated way more attractive o unattractive is rates way less unattractive Micro Expressions  very brief facial expressions, lasting only a fraction of a second  can occur when feelings are either deliberately or unconsciously concealed  they can only reveal 1 of the 6 basic emotions and only one at a time o Jealously would NOT be one because it’s a non basic emotion o Basic emotions:  Sadness  Contempt  Disgust  Surprise  Fear  Anger o They do not have to be learned, human infants are born knowing what these emotions are  Allows us to go anywhere in the world and understand how people are feeling through these emotions ▯ Detecting Lies by Micro Expressions  People are terrible at detecting lies o non-experts, judges, trial lawyers, police, forensic psychiatrists  no better than chance ▯ Q: people mostly dream about…  Familiar people and activities ▯ ▯ Sleep and Dreams  Why sleep? o Conservation (energy) o Restoration (brain/body cells)  Issues with sleep – circadian rhythms o The “Watch”  Before Electricity - Period of time during the middle of the night, people would wake up and do things, then go back to sleep and then wake up with the sun  Would go to bed when it gets dark o Societal norms  Shifting based on what time of day it is  Humans – sleep more at night than during the day but our sleep is not just driven by circadian rhythms but also driven by cultural norms  Not one universal way to sleep ▯ Sleep Hygiene  Use bed for sleep, sex (and cuddling)  Establish regular sleep routine o Circadian rhythm are usually pretty regular  Don’t procrastinate on bedtime  Eat last big meal 2-3 hours before sleep  Naps are good! o Poly-phasic sleep may be ideal  Avoid electronics (TV/computer) late at night o If you must, use a blue light filter  Sleep naked ▯ How much sleep do you really need?  Depends on age  Newborns (0-2 months) – 12 to 18 hours  Infants (3-11 months) – 14 to 15 hours  ETC. ▯ Dreams  Freudian Dream Analysis o Latent content  Symbolism  Grocery store is at house you grew up in, food is what you should be eating, person is ex boyfriend, etc. o Manifest content  What is literally happening  EX: at grocery store, buy chips, go back and watch tv with friends o Dream work  Physiological Theories o Activation-synthesis model (AIM model) ▯ Dreams Theories:  Continuity hypothesis o Idea that people dream about things that they experience in their lives o One of the most supported by the data  Rehearsal Theory o Dreams exist to help people play out experiences that they might have after they wake up to prepare you  Terror Management Theory o Focuses on negative contents o Helps you cope with negative stuff  Problem-Solving theory o Without the emotional component o More cognitive (something you are working on without having any emotional process to it)  Social Bonding Theory o Suggest that dreams exist to help people form and maintain interpersonal relationships o One of the most supported by the data ▯ Dreams:  Most settings and people are familiar o ~5% have unusual/unrealistic settings o Most common immediate family, spouses  Then other family members and friends o 60-75% of dreams contain at least one familiar character  Actions: o Most frequent is talking (90%) o Active exertion (about 15-20%)  Sophisticated thought patterns o “contemplate”, “decide”, “ponder” o laughing, crying, goal-directed thinking o theory of mind, counter-factual thinking  Implications for relationships in waking life  “REM” evolved to promote development of attachment and reproductive strategies.” o McNamara (1996; 1998; et al., 2001) ▯ States of Consciousness  Meditation o Enhances self-knowledge and well-being through reduced self- awareness  Improves motivation, attention, vision, health, etc.  Improves all kind of aspects of your life with virtually no side effects ▯ Mind-Altering Drugs  Psychoactive drugs o Something that involves a chemical change in your brain o Chemicals that change conscious awareness of reality (time, space)  Tolerance o Continued use required greater dosage o When you require a greater dosage of the drug in order to achieve the same effect because of prior usage  EX: alcohol  Physiological dependence o Body changes such that it is now dependent on the drug in order to achieve the same mental state you would have without it o Body is adjusted to/dependent on drug o Leads to addiction o Need drug to bring you back up to that point (happy pill)  Psychological dependence o Craving for drug, routine o No physical changes in your body (could give people placebo) o Pill is security blanket  Addiction o Body requires drug in order to function without a negative reaction o Painful withdrawal symptoms (shakes) ▯ “Rat Park”  Gave rats a choice between two tubes of water (one that contained the drug and one that did not)  Overtime, the rats became addicted and craved the drug  Took over their lives, neglected their own wellbeing and died as a result of their addiction o made us realize this is how drugs work  Then did another version of the study: o Put rats in situations where they had many things to play with (other rats, toys, etc.) o The rats in this study did not prefer the water with the drug in it  NOT about the drug itself o ABOUT the ENVIRONMENT people are put in ▯ ▯ Sex and Relationships 10/22/2015 ▯ Definitions:  What is sex? o Genitalia; contributes to gender o Physical actions involving erotic body parts  What is a relationship? o Emotionally significant bond  Marked by bonding  Bonding can signify some kind of emotional attachment (need that person, want to be close to them, etc.) a part of this is because we (as humans) have a fundamental need to belong o Need to belong is universal – all humans have it  Start in infancy ▯ Friendships and Love:  Friendship does not equal romantic love? Maybe not o Attraction, intimacy, disclosure, sex, betrayal, jealousy, breakup… o “Friends with benefits” o Maybe the label…  The fact that it needs clarification sometimes, shows how they overlap with each other ▯ Sociosexual Orientation:  Restricted vs. Unrestricted sexual activity o Attitudes, desires, behavior o “Sex without love is OK” o Restricted- more geared to sex with close committed relationships o Unrestricted- can have sex in lots of different situations and feel good about it  DOES NOT EQUAL sexual orientation, sex drive, or sexual satisfaction  The degree to which a person has restricted or unrestricted view of sexual activity  Men >> Women o Probably combination of biological and social factors o Men more unrestricted, women more restricted ▯ Sexual Selection:  Natural Selection vs. Sexual Selection  Natural selection: o Have to do to the degree with an individual organism that is best fit to reproduce o Pass down traits that are best to help you survive  Sexual selection: o The processes that go into decision making with sex, choose who you want to mate with  Who do I mate with, who do I not mate with o Intersexual Selection:  Sexual between sexes o Intrasexual Competition:  Competition between the same sex  Males competing with males in order to mate ▯ Peacocks, Porches, & Pablo Picasso:  Mating primes cause men to be more: o Flashy  Conspicuous and ostentatious consumption o Risky, reckless o Creative ▯ Creativity:  Neutral prime:  “These two people work together and are on a break from a coffee shop.”  Doesn’t hurt for men to have a lot of sex because they have less likely chance to have kids  Women, when they are pregnant, the kids are always theres ▯ Sexual Desire/Sex Drive:  Men > Women o Frequency and intensity o Masturbation; fantasy o Tie to satisfaction (general and relational) o Investments (money, time)  Women are sexual “gatekeepers” o They are the ones who decide when sex will begin because the default assumption is that men are always wanting it ▯ Short-Term Mating:  Male/female students approached by attractive opposite-sex confederate o Clark & Hatfield (1989)  “Hi, I’ve been noticing you around campus, and I find you very attractive…” o Would you like to go to dinner/date?  Men- 50% yes, Women- 50% yes o Would you go to my apartment?  Men- 70% yes, women 5% yes o Would you have sex with me?  Men- 75% yes, Women- 0% yes ▯ Sexual Double Standard:  Women may mask their “true” sexuality more because of social desirability o Men may inflate their sexuality for the same reason  Don’t want to be judged for


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