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homework one

by: carla Notetaker

homework one PSYS 111 (Learning, Cognition and Behavior, Mark Bouton & John Green)

carla Notetaker

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Home work before first exam, graded 18 out of 20
Learning, Cognition and Behavior
Mark Bouton and John Green
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by carla Notetaker on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYS 111 (Learning, Cognition and Behavior, Mark Bouton & John Green) at University of Vermont taught by Mark Bouton and John Green in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Learning, Cognition and Behavior in Psychology at University of Vermont.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
PSYS 111 – Learning, Cognition and Behavior Fall 2016 Homework 1 (3 pts) Behavior modification is defined as the systematic and scientific use of behavioral principles to improve people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions. What are the two central  goals of behavior modification, according to the Baldwin and Baldwin reading? Give an  illustration of each.  ­ Two goals of behavior modification are classical and operant conditioning. And example of classical condition is when someone comes into the kitchen every time cookies are being made because of the smell. Operant condition is when a dog gets a treat after they are given a command, it is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. An associate between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Through operant and classical conditioning behavior excesses and deficits can be changed. Behavior excesses such as overeating, and deficits limited abilities for talking comfortably with others. (2 pt) According to the Baldwin and Baldwin reading, why do avoidance behaviors slow  the extinction of a Pavlovian conditioned response? ­ Avoidance behavior slow down the extinction because they are already slowly removing themselves from the unpleasant situation. Thus reducing the time left for the previously learned behavior to become extinct due to the lack of reinforcements. (2 pt) For good reinforcement or punishment effects to occur, how soon should the  reinforcer or punishment be delivered? ­ Punishments should be delivered directly after the unwanted behavior. With reinforcement extinction can occur when the reinforcement is used with other tasks or associations. (3 pts) The Lieberman text describes “contrast effects.” What are these? Distinguish  between “positive contrast” and “negative contrast.”  - Contrast effects are when a magnification or diminishment of perception as a result of previous exposures to something of lesser or greater quality in the same dimension. Positive contrast is when something appears to be better than it actually is because it was compared to something worse. Negative contrast is when something is shown as worse than it actually is because it is being compared to something better. (3 pts) The Lieberman text describes an experiment published by Skinner (in 1948) that  demonstrated “superstition” in pigeons. Briefly describe the experiment and the result in  your own words. How was the result explained, and what does it seem to tell us about the nature of reinforcement?   - In Skinner’s experiment 1948, pigeons were placed in box and given a grain every 15 seconds regardless of behavior. Although they weren’t given food based on behavior they developed high stereotyped behaviors. When the food was first presented would have strengthen the behavior of the bird that being engaged at that time. As a result the bird would repeat this response and if one of the repetitions resulted in food it would further strengthen that response. The result is explained through adventitious reinforcement. In the end Skinner noticed that of the 8 birds had acquired stereotypical responses. Shows that the pigeons can be conditioned to develop superstitious behaviors driven by the believe that they are going to be fed. (3 pts) How does the conditioned compensatory response contribute to the development  of drug tolerance?   - The conditioned compensatory response contributes to the development of drug tolerance because the conditioned stimulus is a cue that the body is going to be getting drugs, so if a person is doing drugs in the same location the body gets ready for it and is expecting the administration. When a person is exposed to a CS (an environment they use in) without the drug they will experience withdrawal like symptoms (CRs) causing the addict to increase the amount of drugs they use to relieve these symptoms. If the addict uses in an unfamiliar environment the compensatory CR will not be triggered because the CS is not present; leaving no CRs available to counteract the high dose of the drug. Because of this it is more likely for an addict to overdose in an unfamiliar place than in a place they have used before. (4 pts ) Briefly describe an experiment that confirms and illustrates the importance of  “surprise” or “prediction error” in Pavlovian conditioning.  - Example of the bell and the light: with the bell ringing always being paired with the food, there is no prediction error, and adding the light fixes that and adds a prediction error.


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