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PSY 320 Week 5 Notes

by: Erin Wade

PSY 320 Week 5 Notes PSY 320

Erin Wade
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

Lecture notes for week 5 Prof Amberg Phobias, OCD and other anxiety disorders
Abnormal Psychology
Martha D Amberg
Class Notes
PSY320, abnormalpsychology, Amberg, Psychology
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Wade on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at Colorado State University taught by Martha D Amberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
9/19/16  Other Trauma Related Disorders  ­ Acute stress disorder ­ occurs with traumas similar to PTSD  ● Lasts no longer than 4 weeks  ­ Adjustment disorder ­ emotional and behavioral symptoms arise within three weeks    Phobias  ­ Unreasonable or irrational fears of specific objects or situations  ● Common phobias:  ○ Arachnophobia ­ fear of spiders  ○ Ophidiophobia ­ fear of snakes  ○ Acrophobia ­ fear of heights  ○ Agoraphobia ­ fear of open or crowded spaces  ○ Cynophobia ­ fear of dogs  ○ Astraphobia ­ fear of thunder/lightning  ○ Claustrophobia ­ fear of small spaces  ○ Mysophobia ­ fear of germs  ○ Aerophobia ­ fear of flying  ○ Trypophobia ­ fear of holes  ● Categories according to DSM­5  ○ Animal type  ■ Snakes & spiders  ○ Natural environment type  ■ Heights  ○ Situation type  ■ Claustrophobia  ○ Blood­injection­injury type  ■ Germs & disease  ■ Dentist & doctor  ­ Theories of Phobias  ● Behavioral  ○ Negative reinforcement ­ anxiety is reduced by avoidance  ○ Classical conditioning ­ conditioning to certain objects or situations  ■ Little Albert  ● Biological  ○ Related people share phobias  ­ Treatment of Phobias  ● Exposure to extinguish fear  ○ Systematic desensitization ­ start with it far away from you (mentally and  then physically)  ○ Modeling ­ showing that other people are calm and okay with situation  ○ Flooding ­ have them face fear right away  ● Applied tension technique   ○ Tension increases blood pressure to keep from fainting  ● Biological treatment ­ Benzodiazepines     Social Anxiety Disorder  ­ Anxiety in social situations  ● Rejected, judged, or humiliated in public  ● Focus on avoiding such events  ● More common in women  ● Develops often in adolescence   ­ Treatment for Social Anxiety Disorder  ● Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)  ● Serotonin­norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)  ● Cognitive­behavioral therapy  ○ Identifying negative cognitions and dispute them  ○ Role playing  ● Mindfulness­based interventions    9/21/16  Panic Disorder  ­ Panic attacks ­ short extremely intense periods when someone experiences many  anxiety symptoms   ● Symptoms:  ○ Racing heart   ○ Difficulty breathing ­ compressed  ○ Sweating   ○ Racing thoughts  ○ Hyperventilating   ○ Trembling/shaking  ○ Trouble sleeping ­ intrusive thoughts   ● Panic attacks become common and unprovoked  ● Worry about having panic attacks and change behaviors as result ­ like not going  out in public because they don’t want to have a panic attack in front of someone  ● Fear of having a life threatening illness ­ think they are having a heart attack  sometimes  ­ Theories of Panic Disorder  ● Heritability 43­48%  ● Triggers:  ○ Hyperventilating  ■ Ex: being out of breath from running can be like opening the  floodgates for all the other symptoms  ○ Ingest caffeine  ○ Breathing into a paper bag ­ breath in CO2, makes it harder to breath  ● Involvement of limbic system  ○ Amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus  ○ Locus Ceruleus  ■ Dysregulation of norepinephrine system  ■ Pathway to limbic system  ­ Cognitive factors  ● Misinterpret body sensations in a negative way  ○ Walk up five flights of stairs will make you a little short of breath and heart  beat faster ­ misinterpret it to be more concerning  ● Snowballing catastrophic thinking  ● Believe bodily symptoms have harmful consequences  ● Heightened awareness of cues signaling panic attack  ○ Conditioned cues  ­ Treatments for Panic Disorder  ● Biological treatments  ○ Medication affecting serotonin and norepinephrine systems  ■ Benzodiazepine  ● Cognitive­behavioral therapies  ○ Relaxation and breathing exercises  ○ Identifying the catastrophizing cognitions  ○ Systematic desensitization therapy    Generalized Anxiety Disorder  ­ Symptoms  ● Anxious all the time  ● Worrying about life  ● Typically begins in childhood  ● More common in women  ­ Theories of Generalized Anxiety Disorder  ● Experiencing intense negative emotions  ● Heightened reactivity to emotional stimuli in amygdala ­ amygdala is being  overstimulated  ● Make maladaptive assumptions ­ assume world is bad place  ● Detecting possible threats in the environment  ○ Unconscious cognitions  ● Deficiency of gamma­aminobutyric acid  ○ Excessive firing of neurons through many areas of the brain  ■ Chronic, diffuse symptoms of anxiety  ○ Modest heritability    Separation Anxiety Disorder  ­ Anxious and upset is separated from primary caregivers  ● Not diagnosed unless  ○ Symptoms persist for at least 4 weeks  ○ Significantly impair the child’s functioning  ­ Theories of Separation Anxiety Disorder  ● Biological factors  ○ Tendency toward anxiety is heritable  ○ Behavioral inhibition ­ causes children to be  ■ Shy, fearful and irritable as toddlers  ■ Cautious, quiet, and introverted as school­age children  ● Psychological and sociocultural factors  ○ Learn to be anxious from parents  ­ Treatments for Separation Anxiety Disorder  ● Cognitive­behavioral therapies ­ Teach skills  ○ Coping and challenging cognitions that feed anxiety  ○ Relaxation exercises  ○ Challenge fears about separation  ■ Self­talk to calm  ● Drugs used are antidepressants, anti anxiety, stimulants and antihistamines    9/23/16  Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  ­ Obsessions ­ Persistent thoughts, images, ideas, or impulses  ● Uncontrollably intrude upon consciousness  ● Cause significant anxieties or distress  ­ Compulsions ­ Repetitive behaviors of mental acts that an individual feels he or she must  perform ­ Releases STRESS from obsession  ­ DSM Criteria  A) Persistence of Obsessions, compulsions, or both  ● Obsessions: 1 & 2  ○   ● Compulsions: 1 & 2  ○   B) Time consuming ­ over hour a day or causes distress in social function  C) Not attributable to substances or medical condition  D) Not better explained by other condition  ­ Common types of ​obsession ​ in OCD  ● Contamination  ○ Body fluids  ○ Germs/disease   ○ Environmental contaminants  ○ Dirt  ● Losing Control  ○ Fear of acting on an impulse to harm oneself or others  ○ Fear of violent or horrific images in one’s mind  ○ Fear of blurting out obscenities or insults  ○ Fear of stealing things  ● Harm  ○ Fear of being responsible for something terrible happening  ● Obsessions related to perfectionism  ○ Concern about evenness or exactness  ○ Concern with a need to know or remember things  ● Unwanted sexuaal thoughts  ○ Forbidden or perverse sexual thoughts or images  ○ Forbidden or perverse sexual impulses about others  ● Religious Obsessions (Scrupulosity)  ○ Concern with offending God, or concern about blasphemy  ○ Excessive concern with right/wrong morally  ● Hoarding ­ closely related to OCD, but is classified as a separate diagnosis in the  DMS­5  ­ Common types of ​compulsions​ in OCD  ● Washing and Cleaning  ○ Excessive showering, bathing, grooming or hand washing  ○ Excessive cleaning household items or other objects  ○ Prevent or remove contact with contaminants  ● Checking  ○ Checking that you did not/will not harm self or others  ○ Checking that you did not make a mistake  ○ Checking physical condition or body  ● Repeating  ○ Rereading or rewriting  ○ Repeating routine activities or body movements  ■ Repeating activities in “multiples” (ex: doing a task three times  because three is a “good,” “right,” number)  ● Mental compulsions  ○ Mental review of events to prevent harm (to oneself or others, to prevent  terrible consequences)  ○ Praying to prevent harm (to oneself or others, to prevent terrible  consequences)  ○ Counting while performing a task to end on a “good,” “right,” or “safe”  number  ○ “Cancelling” or “Undoing” (Ex: replacing a “bad” word with a “good” word  to cancel it)  ● Other compulsions  ○ Putting things in order or arranging things until it “feels right”  ○ Avoiding situations that might trigger your obsessions  ­ Theories of OCD and Related Disorders  ● Biological Theories  ○ Focus on a circuit in the brain involved in motor behavior, cognition, and  emotions  ○ Response to drugs is good  ○ Genes help determine who is vulnerable to OCD  ● Characteristics of people who develop OCD:  ○ Depressed or generally anxious much of the time  ○ Tendency toward rigid, moralistic thinking  ○ Believe they should be able to control all their thoughts  ○ Trouble accepting that everyone has horrific notions occasionally  ● Compulsions develop largely through operant conditioning ­ negatively reinforced  because compulsions help relieve anxiety from obsessions  ­ Treatments for OCD and Related Disorders  ● Biological treatments ­ antidepressants, serotonin­enhancing drugs  ○ Have significant side effects ­ sometimes worse than the original problem  ● Cognitive­behavioral treatments  ○ Exposure and response prevention ­ exposes the client to the focus of the  obsession, preventing compulsive responses to the resulting anxiety  ○ Challenges individual’s moralistic thoughts, excessive sense of  responsibility, and maladaptive cognitions  ­ OCD Mythconceptions (Misconceptions)  ● We are all a little bit OCD sometimes  ● Not a big deal ­ they just need to learn to relax  ● Is just being a neat freak ­ cleaning, hand washing  ● People with OCD can’t live a productive life 


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