PSY 320 Week 5 Notes
PSY 320 Week 5 Notes PSY 320
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Wade on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at Colorado State University taught by Martha D Amberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
9/19/16 Other Trauma Related Disorders Acute stress disorder occurs with traumas similar to PTSD ● Lasts no longer than 4 weeks Adjustment disorder emotional and behavioral symptoms arise within three weeks Phobias Unreasonable or irrational fears of specific objects or situations ● Common phobias: ○ Arachnophobia fear of spiders ○ Ophidiophobia fear of snakes ○ Acrophobia fear of heights ○ Agoraphobia fear of open or crowded spaces ○ Cynophobia fear of dogs ○ Astraphobia fear of thunder/lightning ○ Claustrophobia fear of small spaces ○ Mysophobia fear of germs ○ Aerophobia fear of flying ○ Trypophobia fear of holes ● Categories according to DSM5 ○ Animal type ■ Snakes & spiders ○ Natural environment type ■ Heights ○ Situation type ■ Claustrophobia ○ Bloodinjectioninjury type ■ Germs & disease ■ Dentist & doctor Theories of Phobias ● Behavioral ○ Negative reinforcement anxiety is reduced by avoidance ○ Classical conditioning conditioning to certain objects or situations ■ Little Albert ● Biological ○ Related people share phobias Treatment of Phobias ● Exposure to extinguish fear ○ Systematic desensitization start with it far away from you (mentally and then physically) ○ Modeling showing that other people are calm and okay with situation ○ Flooding have them face fear right away ● Applied tension technique ○ Tension increases blood pressure to keep from fainting ● Biological treatment Benzodiazepines Social Anxiety Disorder Anxiety in social situations ● Rejected, judged, or humiliated in public ● Focus on avoiding such events ● More common in women ● Develops often in adolescence Treatment for Social Anxiety Disorder ● Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) ● Serotoninnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) ● Cognitivebehavioral therapy ○ Identifying negative cognitions and dispute them ○ Role playing ● Mindfulnessbased interventions 9/21/16 Panic Disorder Panic attacks short extremely intense periods when someone experiences many anxiety symptoms ● Symptoms: ○ Racing heart ○ Difficulty breathing compressed ○ Sweating ○ Racing thoughts ○ Hyperventilating ○ Trembling/shaking ○ Trouble sleeping intrusive thoughts ● Panic attacks become common and unprovoked ● Worry about having panic attacks and change behaviors as result like not going out in public because they don’t want to have a panic attack in front of someone ● Fear of having a life threatening illness think they are having a heart attack sometimes Theories of Panic Disorder ● Heritability 4348% ● Triggers: ○ Hyperventilating ■ Ex: being out of breath from running can be like opening the floodgates for all the other symptoms ○ Ingest caffeine ○ Breathing into a paper bag breath in CO2, makes it harder to breath ● Involvement of limbic system ○ Amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus ○ Locus Ceruleus ■ Dysregulation of norepinephrine system ■ Pathway to limbic system Cognitive factors ● Misinterpret body sensations in a negative way ○ Walk up five flights of stairs will make you a little short of breath and heart beat faster misinterpret it to be more concerning ● Snowballing catastrophic thinking ● Believe bodily symptoms have harmful consequences ● Heightened awareness of cues signaling panic attack ○ Conditioned cues Treatments for Panic Disorder ● Biological treatments ○ Medication affecting serotonin and norepinephrine systems ■ Benzodiazepine ● Cognitivebehavioral therapies ○ Relaxation and breathing exercises ○ Identifying the catastrophizing cognitions ○ Systematic desensitization therapy Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms ● Anxious all the time ● Worrying about life ● Typically begins in childhood ● More common in women Theories of Generalized Anxiety Disorder ● Experiencing intense negative emotions ● Heightened reactivity to emotional stimuli in amygdala amygdala is being overstimulated ● Make maladaptive assumptions assume world is bad place ● Detecting possible threats in the environment ○ Unconscious cognitions ● Deficiency of gammaaminobutyric acid ○ Excessive firing of neurons through many areas of the brain ■ Chronic, diffuse symptoms of anxiety ○ Modest heritability Separation Anxiety Disorder Anxious and upset is separated from primary caregivers ● Not diagnosed unless ○ Symptoms persist for at least 4 weeks ○ Significantly impair the child’s functioning Theories of Separation Anxiety Disorder ● Biological factors ○ Tendency toward anxiety is heritable ○ Behavioral inhibition causes children to be ■ Shy, fearful and irritable as toddlers ■ Cautious, quiet, and introverted as schoolage children ● Psychological and sociocultural factors ○ Learn to be anxious from parents Treatments for Separation Anxiety Disorder ● Cognitivebehavioral therapies Teach skills ○ Coping and challenging cognitions that feed anxiety ○ Relaxation exercises ○ Challenge fears about separation ■ Selftalk to calm ● Drugs used are antidepressants, anti anxiety, stimulants and antihistamines 9/23/16 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Obsessions Persistent thoughts, images, ideas, or impulses ● Uncontrollably intrude upon consciousness ● Cause significant anxieties or distress Compulsions Repetitive behaviors of mental acts that an individual feels he or she must perform Releases STRESS from obsession DSM Criteria A) Persistence of Obsessions, compulsions, or both ● Obsessions: 1 & 2 ○ ● Compulsions: 1 & 2 ○ B) Time consuming over hour a day or causes distress in social function C) Not attributable to substances or medical condition D) Not better explained by other condition Common types of obsession in OCD ● Contamination ○ Body fluids ○ Germs/disease ○ Environmental contaminants ○ Dirt ● Losing Control ○ Fear of acting on an impulse to harm oneself or others ○ Fear of violent or horrific images in one’s mind ○ Fear of blurting out obscenities or insults ○ Fear of stealing things ● Harm ○ Fear of being responsible for something terrible happening ● Obsessions related to perfectionism ○ Concern about evenness or exactness ○ Concern with a need to know or remember things ● Unwanted sexuaal thoughts ○ Forbidden or perverse sexual thoughts or images ○ Forbidden or perverse sexual impulses about others ● Religious Obsessions (Scrupulosity) ○ Concern with offending God, or concern about blasphemy ○ Excessive concern with right/wrong morally ● Hoarding closely related to OCD, but is classified as a separate diagnosis in the DMS5 Common types of compulsions in OCD ● Washing and Cleaning ○ Excessive showering, bathing, grooming or hand washing ○ Excessive cleaning household items or other objects ○ Prevent or remove contact with contaminants ● Checking ○ Checking that you did not/will not harm self or others ○ Checking that you did not make a mistake ○ Checking physical condition or body ● Repeating ○ Rereading or rewriting ○ Repeating routine activities or body movements ■ Repeating activities in “multiples” (ex: doing a task three times because three is a “good,” “right,” number) ● Mental compulsions ○ Mental review of events to prevent harm (to oneself or others, to prevent terrible consequences) ○ Praying to prevent harm (to oneself or others, to prevent terrible consequences) ○ Counting while performing a task to end on a “good,” “right,” or “safe” number ○ “Cancelling” or “Undoing” (Ex: replacing a “bad” word with a “good” word to cancel it) ● Other compulsions ○ Putting things in order or arranging things until it “feels right” ○ Avoiding situations that might trigger your obsessions Theories of OCD and Related Disorders ● Biological Theories ○ Focus on a circuit in the brain involved in motor behavior, cognition, and emotions ○ Response to drugs is good ○ Genes help determine who is vulnerable to OCD ● Characteristics of people who develop OCD: ○ Depressed or generally anxious much of the time ○ Tendency toward rigid, moralistic thinking ○ Believe they should be able to control all their thoughts ○ Trouble accepting that everyone has horrific notions occasionally ● Compulsions develop largely through operant conditioning negatively reinforced because compulsions help relieve anxiety from obsessions Treatments for OCD and Related Disorders ● Biological treatments antidepressants, serotoninenhancing drugs ○ Have significant side effects sometimes worse than the original problem ● Cognitivebehavioral treatments ○ Exposure and response prevention exposes the client to the focus of the obsession, preventing compulsive responses to the resulting anxiety ○ Challenges individual’s moralistic thoughts, excessive sense of responsibility, and maladaptive cognitions OCD Mythconceptions (Misconceptions) ● We are all a little bit OCD sometimes ● Not a big deal they just need to learn to relax ● Is just being a neat freak cleaning, hand washing ● People with OCD can’t live a productive life
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