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PY 372

by: Jordana Baraad
Jordana Baraad
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

These notes cover the material covered on Tues 9/20, finishing up the Obedience/ Conformity unit, covered on Thursday's test.
Social Psychology
William Peter Hart
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordana Baraad on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 372 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William Peter Hart in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
 Normative social influence: Conformity based on a desire to fulfill others’  expectations ˗ Motivated by desire to be liked ˗ V. informative influence—desire to be right ˗ Asch Line Study  Participant given a line-matching task w/ a clear right answer  Majority of group (experimental confederates) gives clear wrong answer o 75% participants gave wrong answer at least once in presence of confederates (37% conformed on more than half of questions) o compared to <1% of participants given the task in unpressured group  participants didn’t really believe their conforming answers—didn’t want to ridiculed or thought strange  When do people conform ˗ Group size+unanimity: larger group  greater likelihood conformity ˗ Effect heightened when group’s opinion is otherwise unanimous ˗ close­knit groups conform more in that group than in others­­cohesion ˗ Status: powerful person’s response has greater influence on conformity ˗ Public response: mandatory public response  more conformity ˗ Public commitment: making a public commitment to your position  decreases conformity to an alternative position ˗ Could increase/ decrease conformity dep on prior declaration  Compliance: Getting People to Say Yes  Door in the face technique: After a person turns down a large request, people  are more likely to comply when the requester offers a smaller more reasonable  request ˗ Ex: blood donor study ˗ People were asked if they would commit long term to donating blood  regularly for a year (everyone said no) ˗ Participants were then asked to just donate a single unit of blood  tomorrow ˗ 50% agreed ˗ When only asked to donate blood tomorrow, only 32% agreed to  Reciprocation (Norm of Reciprocity): an expectation that people will help  those who have helped them ˗ Ex. march of dimes—receive a dime in the envelope where donations are  requested ˗ 35% donated w/ gift v. 18% w/o gift  Principle of social proof: we determine what is correct by looking to others ˗ “Everyone else is doing it, so I probably should too” ˗ Ex: tip jars, best­selling, fastest­growing  Scarcity: things you do not or cannot have become more valuable ˗ Ex: “Limited edition” or “for a limited time only”  Obedience Milgram’s study: Fake study of “effect of punishment on learning” designed to study obedience  Inspired by Nuremberg Trial’s exposure of compliance of Nazis n WWII  40 men as “teachers” instructed by “scientist” to give patient a “shock” (fake) for every incorrect answer  Machine: 15 volts to 450 volts (lethal shock)  Each wrong answer  higher voltage  Actor pretending to be in greater pain w/ each shock  65% went all the way up to 450 V (all went to 300 (“danger”))  repeated to examine the characteristics of the authority figure that led to  obedience ˗ Power: status or prestige of the person given the command ˗ When older “researcher” replaced w/ younger “research assistant,”  ˗ 65%­­>20% all the way to 450 V ˗ Immediacy: more influential when the experimenter is close ˗ when experimenter phoned in commands fr diff room,  ˗ 65%­25% all the way to 450 V ˗ Number: more obedeince when more “teachers” are obeying (giving shots)  The study was repeated to examine what characteristics of the situation  influence obedience ˗ Emotional distance of the victim ˗ When the participant was able to administer shocks via remote and  couldn’t the learner yell and plead, nearly 100% of participants obeyed  ˗ Institutional authority ˗ Original study was done at Yale University (prestige) ˗ Repeated same study (and actors) in office building ˗ 65%­­> 48% all the way to 450 V ˗ obedience/ defiance of resisters ˗ confederates acted as 2 defiant teachers who didn’t obey  ˗ 65%­­>10% all the way to 450 V  Resisting Social Pressure  Reactance: motivational reaction in opposition to feeling that something/ or someone is taking away rights/ liberties/ alternatives  Opponent process to conformity/ compliance/ obedience  “I want to do it because you’re preventing me from doing it”  “The forbidden fruit tastes the sweetest” ˗ Labels of objectionable material on media have the opposite effect of making this material more attractive (forbidden; Bushman & Cantor, 1983)  Asserting uniqueness: people want to be somewhat different from others ˗ People feel uncomfortable when they appear exactly like everyone else ˗ feel better when they see themselves as moderately unique


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