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by: Kaitlyn Kwon


Kaitlyn Kwon

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Popular in Oceanography

Popular in Geography

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Kwon on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 009 at University of California Riverside taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Oceanography in Geography at University of California Riverside.




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Date Created: 09/23/16
Oceanography: Ch. 17 09/22/2016 ▯ The Ocean supplies resources:  Physical  Energy  Biological  Non-extractive ▯ ▯ Physical Resources:  Petroleum and Natural Gas o -1/3 of production from the seabed o -1/3 of known reserves in continental shelves  Oil and gas often occur together  Hydrocarbons formed by the anaerobic decay of organic matter + heat and pressure ▯ ▯ Sedimentary rocks: sand and little bits of rocks and fossils layer ▯ ▯ Took about 3 million years to make 1 year’s worth of oil ▯ A growing deficit between consumption and discovery of new oil reserves ▯ ▯ Methane Hydrate- methane ice crystals form at temperatures near 0 degrees Celsius and >250m water depth buried in sediments)  Methane is CH4: largest known reservoir of hydrocarbons  The promise: Solution to oil/gas depletion?  The peril: Warming the ocean by only 4 deg Celsius melt the hydrate and release methane, making global warming worse  Other problems: Extracting, liquefying, transporting (expensive and dangerous) Mineral Resources:  Manganese nodules o Iron, manganese, copper, nickel, cobalt  Phosphorite deposits o Phosphorus—fertilizer  Metallic sulfides and muds o Zinc, iron, copper, lead, silver, cadmium ▯ ▯ Salt:  1/3 of global production from evaporation ponds th  Until discovery of salt deposits by geologists in 18 century, evaporation was ONLY source of salt ▯ ▯ Water:  >97% in ocean (salty)  <1% is fresh and found at surface or in groundwater (<800m depth)  Desalinization of sea water is expensive and energy intensive ▯ Renewable Energy: Wind Tides Waves and currents Promising future sources, but minimal contribution now~ costly, inefficient (11% of US energy consumption) Biological Resources: Fish, Crustaceans, Mollusks:  17% of animal protein consumed  About 88% of annual catch comes from the ocean  Fishing employs around 38 million people but about 75% of harvest is taken by commercial fishers  Maximum sustainable yield = 2001 catch ▯ ▯ Whales:  Meat, oil, bones  8 of 11 species of large whale commercially extinct ▯ Fur-Bearing Mammals:  Hunted almost to extinction but quotas/protection have allowed some species to recover ▯ Algin:  Gel coating from seaweed used in salad dressing, paint, printer’s ink, ice cream, beer, wine  U.S. industry worth $220 million per year Mariculture:  “Ocean farming” –oysters, salmon, plaice (fish/chips)  Growing as commercial fishing declines  Many fish farms create pollution and infection and it is an energy-intensive process with lots of waste ▯ ▯ Drugs:  Untapped potential- up to 10% of marine species may yield useful drugs  Acylovir (Caribbean sponge) o Antiviral: herpes of skin and nervous system)  30% of investigated tunicates show antiviral and antitumor activity ▯ ▯ Nonextractive Resources: ▯ ▯ Transportation  Oil—30% of global trade (more than half transported by ships) o More than half transported by ships) ▯ Almost 40% of U.S. population lives in costal regions ▯ ▯ Renewable vs. Nonrenewable: ▯ ▯ Which it is depends on rate of use compared to rate of regeneration ▯ ▯ Time Scale Counts! ▯ ▯ Nonrenewable: use rate > made rate ▯ ▯ Fish  Maximum sustainable yield = 2001 catch OR ~130 million metric tons ▯ ▯ Potable Water (drinkable water) ▯ ▯ Globally- yes but perhaps not locally ▯ ▯


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