Social Psychology 2401 Week 4 Notes (9/19 and 9/23)
Social Psychology 2401 Week 4 Notes (9/19 and 9/23) PSY 2401
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asmaa Abdullah on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2401 at Temple University taught by Melinda Mattingly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY in Psychology at Temple University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Text in yellow = Main idea Text in Blue = Subidea Text in green = Important person 9/19: Continuation of week 3 notes: (for exam) Knowing Ourselves Via Culture ● Cultural Differences ○ Independent view of the self ■ more influenced by individualist cultures ● cultures that encourage individual thoughts, individual goals, individual needs/wants (focus is on the individual) ● they cultivate an independent view of self ● United States, Canada, etc.. ○ Interdependent view of the self ■ more influenced by collectivist cultures ● focus on collective groups / focuses on group, not individual ● cultivates view of interdependent view of self where we think of our relationships with others and thinking of yourself within that group ● Latino, Asian, etc.. ○ these views are on a spectrum rather than in categories SelfEsteem ● evaluation of yourself ○ (whether you like yourself) ○ affective component of the self ● Need for selfesteem ○ general need/motivator ○ Sociometer Theory (Leary & Baumeister) ■ people are very social and we need other people to like us / we need to be accepted ■ we have Social Meter (Sociometer) that is gaining acceptance or rejection from other people ■ if we judge that we are accepted by other people, this is reflected in our selfesteem (we have a high degree of self esteem) ■ if we judge that we are rejected by other people, this is also reflected in our selfesteem (we have a low degree of self esteem) ■ Sociometer reflects our need for social contact ■ The closer the person to you, the higher their effect on your selfesteem ○ Terror Management Theory (Greenberg et al., 1997) ■ at the same time that humans are trying to survive, we still understand that death is inevitable (we know we are mortal) ■ we try to manage the terror/anxiety of this knowing we are going to die by supporting cultural values/world views ● e.g: the importance of education, religion ● this enables us to live on to support the things that are still there when we are gone ○ ((Sociometer and TMT explain why we need selfesteem)) ○ Selfdiscrepancy theory (Higgins, 1989) ■ ((explains the varying levels of selfesteem)) ■ when you are trying to evaluate your selfesteem, you think of 3 different selves: ● Actual ○ How we actually are ● Ought ○ what you should be like as a bare minimum ○ perception of yourself is below “ought” = we feel bad about ourselves, maybe depression, etc... ● Ideal selves ○ The maximum we can think of ourselves ○ in a perfect world, i would be this and that ■ amount of discrepancy matters ■ importance of the discrepancy ● varies between types of values ○ e.g: athletic abilities, cognition ● the more important the discrepancy to you, the more it matters ■ awareness of discrepancy ■ degree of selfesteem is the result of your evaluation of these 3 selves ○ Selfawareness theory ■ When people focus attention on themselves they evaluate and compare their behavior to internal standards ■ evaluating the amount, importance, awareness, and types of discrepancy ■ we don’t like selfawareness because we are evaluating our potential discrepancies and often we don’t measure up to our own expectations ■ this was a potential explanation for why we don’t use introspection ■ selfawareness makes us uncomfortable ■ we become more selfaware when people are watching us, when we look at our pictures or look in the mirror ■ When behavior doesn’t match our standards ● we change our behavior ● fleeing self awareness ○ we use distractions to flee selfawareness Selfenhancement ● Better than average effect ○ we think we are better than average person ○ we do this to feel better about ourselves ● Implicit Egotism (not proven to be true yet) ○ subtle way that we have to feel better about ourselves ○ unconscious (we are not aware that we do this) ○ it tells us that we tend to like other people because they remind us of ourselves ● Selfserving bias ○ when we come up with selfserving explanations for why things happen to us ○ these explanations make us feel better about ourselves no matter the cause ● Selfhandicapping ○ we create excuses/obstacle that we can use if we fail Impression Management ● Selfpresentation ○ we present our best view of ourselves ○ Ingratiation ■ complimenting ○ Selfpromotion ■ we talk about ourselves positively ○ these methods need to be mediated because too much of these fireback to us ● Selfverification ○ we want people to see us how we see ourselves (good and bad) ○ these people are more ● Selfmonitoring ○ High selfmonitoring ■ censor/monitor = more interested in self presentation ○ Low selfmonitoring ■ don’t censor/monitor yourself = more interested in selfverification 9/23: Chapter 4: Perceiving Persons Social Perception ● Processes by which we come to understand other people ● 1.how we are able to describe people, behavior, and/or circumstances ● 2.how we are able to explain people, behavior, and/or circumstances ● 3.synthesize information to form an impression of another person ● 4.how do impressions change our reality Describing People (1): Initial Impressions ● we make initial impressions very quickly ● assessment of people starts early in life ~ about 23 years ● Nonverbal information forms initial impressions from ○ Physical appearance (starts at 23 years) ○ Facial expressions (starts at 612 months) ■ makes up a big part of impression formation ■ Darwin suggested evolutionary purposes of communication were linked to facial expressions ● certain facial expressions have survival value (anger can be indicated easier than happiness) ● another piece of evidence is that the 6 facial expressions are universal (sadness, happiness, shock/fear, surprise, disgust, anger) ○ a few expressions becoming more universal = contempt (sarcasm or “i don’t believe you); pride (smile +body posture is straight); shame (body posture is slumped) ● a third piece of evidence is that babies do this too ● a fourth piece of evidence is that people that are born blind do this (Anything Paul Achman ~ microexpressions) ■ the use of emoticons represents the importance of facial expressions ● initial impressions stick with us often Explaining People (2): Attributions ● basically, explanations ● Attribution Theory (Heider, 1958) ○ The way in which people explain causes of their own and other people’s behavior ○ 2 Types of attributions ■ Personal (internal) Attribution ● when it is something about the person ● we tend to rely on personal attributions ● Heider suggests people have perceptual salience (we pay attention to the people rather than the context) ■ situational (external) Attribution ● when it is other people, the situation, or the circumstance ● Correspondent inference theory ○ we’re trying to find a similarity/correspondence between someone’s behavior and enduring traits that they have (behavior and personal attributions) ○ it is kind of limited because it tells us when we really rely on internal attribution and not much about external ○ Choice ■ if we feel like the person has a choice in their behavior, it tells us more about the individual than when they don’t have a choice ○ Expectedness ■ if behavior is unusual/not typical, it tells us more about people than if the behavior is usual/typical ○ Effects ■ if the effects of the behavior are positive, it doesn’t tell us much ■ if the effects of the behavior are negative or mixed, it tells us more about the person ● Covariation Model (Kelley, 1967) ○ tells us when we use both internal and external attributions
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