New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Social Psychology 2401 Week 4 Notes (9/19 and 9/23)

by: Asmaa Abdullah

Social Psychology 2401 Week 4 Notes (9/19 and 9/23) PSY 2401

Marketplace > Temple University > Psychology > PSY 2401 > Social Psychology 2401 Week 4 Notes 9 19 and 9 23
Asmaa Abdullah
GPA 3.87

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover what we have covered in class on Monday 9/19 for the first exam and what we covered on Friday 9/23 for Chapter 4 with Dr. Mattingly. No notes are available for Wednesday 9/21 sinc...
Melinda Mattingly
Class Notes
25 ?





Popular in Psychology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asmaa Abdullah on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2401 at Temple University taught by Melinda Mattingly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY in Psychology at Temple University.

Similar to PSY 2401 at Temple


Reviews for Social Psychology 2401 Week 4 Notes (9/19 and 9/23)


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/23/16
Text in yellow = Main idea Text in Blue = Sub­idea Text in green = Important person 9/19: Continuation of week 3 notes: (for exam) Knowing Ourselves Via Culture ● Cultural Differences ○ Independent view of the self ■ more influenced by individualist cultures ● cultures that encourage individual  thoughts, individual goals, individual needs/wants (focus is on the  individual) ● they cultivate an independent view  of self ● United States, Canada, etc.. ○ Interdependent view of the self ■ more influenced by collectivist cultures ● focus on collective groups / focuses  on group, not individual ● cultivates view of interdependent  view of self where we think of our relationships with others and  thinking of yourself within that group ● Latino, Asian, etc.. ○ these views are on a spectrum rather than in categories Self­Esteem ● evaluation of yourself  ○ (whether you like yourself) ○ affective component of the self ● Need for self­esteem ○ general need/motivator ○ Sociometer Theory (Leary & Baumeister) ■ people are very social and we need other people to like us / we need to be accepted ■ we have Social Meter (Sociometer) that is gaining  acceptance or rejection from other people ■ if we judge that we are accepted by other people,  this is reflected in our self­esteem (we have a high degree of self esteem) ■ if we judge that we are rejected by other people,  this is also reflected in our self­esteem (we have a low degree of self­ esteem) ■ Sociometer reflects our need for social contact ■ The closer the person to you, the higher their effect  on your self­esteem ○ Terror Management Theory (Greenberg et al., 1997) ■ at the same time that humans are trying to survive,  we still understand that death is inevitable (we know we are mortal) ■ we try to manage the terror/anxiety of this knowing  we are going to die by supporting cultural values/world views ● e.g: the importance of education,  religion ● this enables us to live on to support  the things that are still there when we are gone ○ ((Sociometer and TMT explain why we need self­esteem)) ○ Self­discrepancy theory (Higgins, 1989) ■ ((explains the varying levels of self­esteem)) ■ when you are trying to evaluate your self­esteem,  you think of 3 different selves: ● Actual ○ How we actually are ● Ought ○ what you should be  like as a bare minimum ○ perception of yourself is below “ought” = we feel bad about ourselves, maybe  depression, etc... ● Ideal selves ○ The maximum we can think of ourselves ○ in a perfect world, i  would be this and that ■ amount of discrepancy matters ■ importance of the discrepancy ● varies between types of values ○ e.g: athletic abilities,  cognition ● the more important the discrepancy  to you, the more it matters ■ awareness of discrepancy ■ degree of self­esteem is the result of your  evaluation of these 3 selves ○ Self­awareness theory ■ When people focus attention on themselves they  evaluate and compare their behavior to internal standards ■ evaluating the amount, importance, awareness,  and types of discrepancy ■ we don’t like self­awareness because we are  evaluating our potential discrepancies and often we don’t measure up to  our own expectations ■ this was a potential explanation for why we don’t  use introspection ■ self­awareness makes us uncomfortable ■ we become more self­aware when people are  watching us, when we look at our pictures or look in the mirror ■ When behavior doesn’t match our standards ● we change our behavior ● fleeing self awareness ○ we use distractions to flee self­awareness Self­enhancement ● Better than average effect ○ we think we are better than average person ○ we do this to feel better about ourselves ● Implicit Egotism (not proven to be true yet) ○ subtle way that we have to feel better about ourselves ○ unconscious (we are not aware that we do this) ○ it tells us that we tend to like other people because they remind us of ourselves ● Self­serving bias ○ when we come up with self­serving explanations for why things  happen to us ○ these explanations make us feel better about ourselves no matter  the cause ● Self­handicapping ○ we create excuses/obstacle that we can use if we fail Impression Management ● Self­presentation ○ we present our best view of ourselves ○ Ingratiation ■ complimenting ○ Self­promotion ■ we talk about ourselves positively ○ these methods need to be mediated because too much of these  fireback to us ● Self­verification ○ we want people to see us how we see ourselves (good and bad) ○ these people are more  ● Self­monitoring ○ High self­monitoring ■ censor/monitor = more interested in self­ presentation ○ Low self­monitoring ■ don’t censor/monitor yourself = more interested in  self­verification 9/23: Chapter 4: Perceiving Persons Social Perception ● Processes by which we come to understand other people ● we are able to describe people, behavior, and/or circumstances ● we are able to explain people, behavior, and/or circumstances ● 3.synthesize information to form an impression of another person ● do impressions change our reality Describing People (1): Initial Impressions ● we make initial impressions very quickly ● assessment of people starts early in life ~ about 2­3 years ● Nonverbal information forms initial impressions from ○ Physical appearance (starts at 2­3 years) ○ Facial expressions (starts at 6­12 months) ■ makes up a big part of impression formation ■ Darwin suggested evolutionary purposes of  communication were linked to facial expressions ● certain facial expressions have  survival value (anger can be indicated easier than happiness) ● another piece of evidence is that the  6 facial expressions are universal (sadness, happiness,  shock/fear, surprise, disgust, anger) ○ a few expressions  becoming more universal = contempt (sarcasm or “i don’t  believe you); pride (smile +body posture is straight);  shame (body posture is slumped) ● a third piece of evidence is that  babies do this too ● a fourth piece of evidence is that  people that are born blind do this (Anything ­ Paul Achman ~  microexpressions) ■ the use of emoticons represents the importance of  facial expressions ● initial impressions stick with us often Explaining People (2): Attributions ● basically, explanations ● Attribution Theory (Heider, 1958) ○ The way in which people explain causes of their own and other  people’s behavior ○ 2 Types of attributions ■ Personal (internal) Attribution ● when it is something about the  person ● we tend to rely on personal  attributions ● Heider suggests people have  perceptual salience (we pay attention to the people rather than the context) ■ situational (external) Attribution ● when it is other people, the situation, or the circumstance ● Correspondent inference theory ○ we’re trying to find a similarity/correspondence between  someone’s behavior and enduring traits that they have (behavior and personal  attributions) ○ it is kind of limited because it tells us when we really rely on  internal attribution and not much about external ○ Choice ■ if we feel like the person has a choice in their  behavior, it tells us more about the individual than when they don’t have a choice ○ Expectedness ■ if behavior is unusual/not typical, it tells us more  about people than if the behavior is usual/typical ○ Effects ■ if the effects of the behavior are positive, it doesn’t  tell us much ■ if the effects of the behavior are negative or mixed,  it tells us more about the person ● Covariation Model (Kelley, 1967) ○ tells us when we use both internal and external attributions


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.