Chapter One; What is Nutrition?
Chapter One; What is Nutrition? BIO 1050
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Notetaker on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1050 at Wright State University taught by Amy Wissman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Biology of Food in Biology at Wright State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Chapter 1 Intro to Nutrition **What drives our food choices? o Taste o Culture (what you grew up eating) o Social reasons and trends o Advertising o Convent o Habits and emotions 6 Classes of Essential Nutrients: o We need to eat and drink to obtain: Nutrients: compounds in foods that aid body processes o Six Classes: Carbohydrates Fats (lipids) Protein Vitamins Minerals Water o Phytochemicals: (phyto-plant) Non-nutrient compound; contribute to health and may play a role in fight chronic diseases. -(long term disease) Why is Good Nutrition so important? o Chronic* deficiencies, excesses, or imbalances of nutrients can affect health. o Good nutrition plays a role in reducing the risk of many chronic dieses. Heart disease, Cancer, Stroke, Diabetes Osteoporosis, high blood pressure and obesity HEART DISEASE, CANCER, STROKE, AND DIABETES ARE IN THE TOP 5 DEATH IN AMERICA. Six Classes: o 1. Macronutrients (causes energy) (Carbohydrates, fats and proteins) Needed higher amounts Provide energy to the body. Carbs and protein provide 4kcal/g Fats provide 9 kcal/g Are organic compounds (contains carbon atoms) o Macronutrients Con’t Carbs supply glucose, a major energy source Fats are another major energy source and also Cushion and insulate the body Proteins can provide energy but better suited for: Growth and maintenance of muscle, tissues, organs Making hormones and enzymes, immune system o 2. Micronutrients Vitamins and Minerals are essential for metabolism. Many assist enzymes in speeding up chemical reaction in the body. Vitamins are organic compounds (C – based) 2 Minerals are inorganic substance (Phos, Calcium, Mg) o Key roles in the body processes and structure. Water Vital for many process in your body. (H2O) Fluid inside and outside of our cells, blood/transporter Part of chemical reactions (ex. Energy production) Well-Balanced diet = essential nutrients in the proper amounts o A variety of food o All nutrient classes o Fiber and phytochemicals Whole grains, fruits and vegetables are rich sources. Supplements? o When nutrient needs are higher Ex: Prengnate women and illness o When diet restrictions exist Nutritional Genomics o Genes determine your specifics. (inherited) o Nutritional Genomics: Study how specific food components affect gene expression in your cells (therefore your health) “everybody’s body is different” **Scientific method o Observation (with a question) o Hypothesis 3 o Experiment to test the hypothesis o Conclusion (hypothesis supported or not) Experimental Research o Preform the experiment o Involves at least TWO groups of subjects Experimental Group: Given a specific treatment Control Group: given a placebo (sugar pill) Double blind- Neither the patient or the doctor know which pill is the treatment and which is the placebo. Key: SIX CLASSES Ener Growth, Regulat gy Maintenan e body ce, process Support, es. or Structure Carbohydra tes Protein Fat Vitamins Minerals Water 4
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