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Biology Chapter 4

by: Alexis Elston

Biology Chapter 4 BSC 114

Alexis Elston
GPA 4.0

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Complete Chapter 4 Coverage from book and class powerpoint
Principles Of Biology I
Daryl W. Lam
Class Notes
Biology, WEEK4, notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Elston on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daryl W. Lam in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Principles Of Biology I in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
Chapter 4 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life  Carbon is the Chemical Backbone of Life o All known organisms on earth consist primarily of carbon­based compounds o Carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form large, complex, and varied molecules by  virtue of the fact that it is tetravalent (has four valence electrons)  Can bond (covalent bonds) with up to four other atoms or groups of atoms,  making a large variety of molecules possible   More than 10 million known carbon compounds o Proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and other  molecules that distinguish living matter are composed of carbon  Chemical diversity of carbon leads to diversity of living organisms o Important Properties of Carbon:  Organic Chemistry: the study of compounds that contain carbon  Organic compounds range from small to large o Most organic compounds contain hydrogen atoms in addition to  carbon  Shape:  In molecules with multiple carbons, each carbon is bonded to four other  atoms has a tetrahedral shape  When two carbon atoms are joined by a double covalent bond, the  molecule, or segment of a molecule, has a rigid flat shape and the atoms  covalently bonded to the carbons are in the same plane as the carbons  The electron configuration of carbon gives it covalent compatibility with any  different elements  Valence of carbon and its most frequent chemical partners are the  building code that governs the architecture of biological molecules o Frequent partners: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon  Molecular Diversity from variation in Carbon Skeletons o Carbon Chains form skeletons, or major parts of skeletons, of most organic molecules.  Carbon skeletons vary in length and may be straight, branched, or arranged in  closed rings  Some carbon skeletons have double bonds  Hydrocarbons consist of only carbon and hydrogen  Many organic molecules, such as fats, have hydrocarbon components  Can undergo chemical reactions that release large amounts of energy  Major components of fossil fuels  Isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula but different  structures and chemical properties  Number of possible isomers increases as carbon skeletons increase in  size  Types of isomers: o Structural isomers: have different covalent arrangements of their  atoms  Same number of atoms, just different structure  May also differ in location of double bonds Chapter 4  Cis­Trans isomers: have the same covalent bonds but  differ in spatial arrangements  Arise from double bonded carbons because they do  not allow atoms they join to rotate efreely about the  bond axis  Enantiomers: isomers that are mirror images of each other  Around an asymmetric carbon, results in molecules  that are like left and right hands o Often designated “L” and “D”  Cannot be superimposed on each other  Important in pharmaceutical industry o Two enantiomers of a drug may have  different effects o Usually only one isomer is biologically alive  Differing effects of enantiomers demonstrate that  organisms are sensitive to even subtle variations in  molecules  Functional Groups o Distinctive chemical properties of an organic molecule depend not only on the  arrangements of its carbon skeleton but also on molecular components attached to the  skeleton  Functional groups: parts of organic molecules involved in chemical reactions  Replace one or more hydrogens bonded to the carbon skeleton of a  hydrocarbon  Behave consistently from one organic molecule to another  Number and arrangement of functional groups help give each molecule  its unique chemical properties Chapter 4  Sex hormones estradiol and testosterone differ only in the presence of  certain functional groups on a common ring structure o Different actions of these two molecules produce the contrasting  features of female and male animals Chapter 4 Chapter 4 IN CLASS EXAMPLE:  Thalidomide is sedative, hypnotic, and anti­inflammatory medication developed in the  1950s. o Thalidomide is racemic – containing enantiomers in equal amounts  Thalidomide enantiomers can interconvert at physiological pH  One form is a potent teratogen, causing malformation of  embryos o More than 10000 children were born with severe  malformations because pregnant mothers were  prescribed this drug.


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