Study Questions Test 1
Study Questions Test 1 PHIL 1020 - 018
Popular in Introduction to Ethics
Popular in Department
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by jcsumlin on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1020 - 018 at Auburn University taught by Gerard A Elfstrom in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
Reviews for Study Questions Test 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/23/16
The Ring Gyges.docx 1) What, exactly, is Glaucon's argument? That is, what message does he want us to accept, and what material does he provide to support his message? ● Everyone hates having injustice done to them, and laws are only put into place to avoid that mistreatment ● In the absence of laws men would act unjustly ● He uses the story about the Ring of Gyges to support his claim. Gyges used his newfound power to get and do whatever he wanted. Glaucon believes that any other person in Gyges shoes would have behaved the same way. 2) Do you agree with Glaucon? What would have to be true for Glaucon's argument to be correct? I itis not correct, what would then need to be true? ● Our morals are based on the teachings that our parents give to use as children. ● For Glaucon’s argument to be correct, no one would feel disturbed about what he has said. ● The ultimate goal of our human nature is to be able get away with injustice. That is how we chieve ltimate happiness. ● Frankena evised2.docx 1) Frankena opens with an example of moral thinking, that of Socrates. What are the 3 moral arguments that ocrates makes? ● We ought never o harm anyone. ● We ught to keep our promises. ● We ought to obey or respect our parents and teachers. 2) Are you convinced by Socrates' arguments? What things do you have to consider to decide whether Socrates' arguments re ersuasive? ● There are a lot of exceptions along with those rules that he talks about ● You have to consider whether you believe in the same morals and ifyou follow those arguments Aristotle revised.docx 1) How, according to Aristotle, can we decide what is good and find the highest good? ● The highest good is the end of things we do ● Can decide highest good by determining what contains the ends of everything else ● What we are doing cannot be done for the benefit for something else ● “Every art and every inquiry, and similarly every action and pursuit, is thought to aim at some ood” ● “If,then, there is some end of the things we do, which we desire for itsown sake (everything else being desired for the sake of this), and if we do not choose everything for the sake of something else (for at that rate the process would go on to infinity so that our desire would be empty and vain), clearly this must be the good and the chief good.” 2) It seems strange for Aristotle to bring politics into a discussion of ethics. Why does he do so? ● Politics legislates what we do as a whole, rather than the individual ● It concerns the moral value as a whole ● Aristotle claims politics is the chief good b/c all other areas fall under it ● Politics is the whole; Ethics is the individual and the whole is more important than the individual Aristotle II evised1.docx 1) What are some of the common views of the good life for human beings which Aristotle considers and hen rejects? ● Pleasure seeking ● Honor eeking ● Wealth eeking ● Reason 2) What does Aristotle believe must be the features possessed by the highest good for human beings? ● Life must be devoted to reason, virtue, and happiness. ● Must be selfsufficient, has to be final, and has to be the end of allwe do. ● There are three types of souls (nutritive, rational and sensitive), as humans we are the only ones who possess rational souls making us the only ones who can achieve theoretical reason and communicate with each other. ● The final cause according to aristotle is perfect which means i has to employ theoretical reasoning Aristotle IIIrevised.docx 1) How, according to Aristotle, is virtuous character formed? ● Intellectual virtue comes from teaching (requires experience and time) ● Moral virtue comes from habit ● None arise rom nature ● All are adapted by nature and made perfect by habit. ● Virtuous character is formed by performing virtuous acts ● Intellectual irtue ishigher han moral virtue ● Moral virtue results from habit, saying thankyou, holding the door open for others, etc. ○ Requires having the right habits ● “Neither by nature, then, nor contrary to nature do the virtues arise in us; rather we are adapted by nature to receive them, and are made perfect by habit.” ● Virtue is formed by the actions that we perform every day, just or unjust. ● Virtuous characters are formed by doing the right thing at the right time with the right people. 2) What qualities must an act possess in order to be virtuous, according to Aristotle? ● An act must be as the virtuous man would do it. ● Must have nowledge behind it ● Must be just or temperate ● Must be brave or cowardly ● Have an action that comes from an unchangeable character. ● Moral: ○ Moral virtues are ased n abits eveloped from your arents ○ Aristotle states that moral virtue is incredibly hard to acquire as we age ○ The type of character that we have is dependant on the people around us ○ We are not “responsible” for the kinds of character we have according to aristotle ● Intellectual: ○ Based on the nowledge that we re able to onsume ○ Our brains are stil developing as we age and the knowledge that we are able to consume earlier in lifeis the knowledge that we are able recall the best. (ex. Language, for younger generations this is technology) ○ Understanding how to respond to situations in the most excellent way possible requires true virtue, intellectual and moral but more so intellectual. Ar istotle V revised.docx 1) What does Aristotle mean when he says, "Virtue, then, isa kind of moderation...." ● Excessive or lacking acts are failures, while the intermediate is a success. ● Virtue requires acts that are neither excessive or lacking, but moderate (cowardly or rash are not brave). Excessive or lacking acts are failures, while the intermediate is a success. ● The things that give us pleasure and pain is an indication of what kind of character we have ● For and action to be virtuous i must be done from a fixed disposition of character. ● Aristotle is interested in becoming certain types of people, things done on a whim isnot a sign a virtuous character. ● Knowing when to be generous/virtuous. Our natural response isto he helpful in situations of distress. ● Aristotle “Virtue, I is always moderate”: All the actions that we can consider all have a spectrum of responses. 2) How, according to Aristotle, do we achieve moderation in our actions ● Must find the middle ground between excessive and lacking acts ● Take i nto ccount surroundings and situations. ● Doing actions with the right person at the right time for the right duration in the right place is the key to moderation. ● Moral virtue is a mean between two vices, the one involving excess, the other deficiency, and that i is such because its character is to; aim at what is intermediate in passions and in actions, as been sufficiently stated ● We must find the middle ground between excessive and lacking acts and take into account surroundings nd situations. Aristotle revised.docx 1) What are the features of the correct conception of happiness, according to Aristotle? ● Involves contemplation for i t wn sake ● It is final ● The end is elfsufficient ● The end all we o ● The correct conception of happiness involves contemplation for its own sake ● It is final, the end is selfsufficient, and itis the end of all we do. Once we have achieved it,we are n end. 2) What reasons does Aristotle give for claiming that the intellectual virtue is better (i.e., more excellent) than moral irtue? ● Intellectual virtue requires less externally than moral virtue and isgained by learning ● Moral virtue is more dependent on interactions w/ others and is gained through habit 400 Years later Focus of Aquinas is more on religion rather than reason. Thomas Aquinas revised.docx 1) Why does Aquinas say that every agent acts to achieve some end or goal? ● Every agent does something or a purpose. ● Agent: synonym for j usta erson ● It's impossible for this chain of actions and purposes to extend infinitely, so there must be something that, upon achieving, the agent comes to rest. God created everything with a purpose i mind. ● No act can reach to infinity, i tends to some definite effect, and an agent acts with a conscious purpose. ● Achieving happiness, however, requires a range of intellectual and moral virtues that enable us to understand the nature of happiness and motivate us to seek i in a reliable and consistent ay. ● Aquinas believes that we can never achieve complete or final happiness in this life. For him, final happiness consists in beatitude, or supernatural union with God. 2) What reasons does Aquinas give for claiming that the goal which agents seek is always good? ● All things are done in God's desire, and God would not want things to end in bad. ● All actions are done in a way that is suitable for something, and nothing is intentionally bad ● Every agent does things that are suitable to itself, and what is suitable for something is good for it so the goal which agents seek isalways good. Thomas Aquinas II.docx 1) What reasons does Aquinas give for claiming that allthings are directed at the end of God? ● God isthe ultimate good, and since allthings act towards good, allthings act towards God. ● Good bears the character of an end, and all things are ordered under God as ends preceding their last end. All things are subordinate to the end of one good, which is God. God isthe productive cause of all things (beginning and the end). 2) How does Aquinas' claim that the ultimate happiness of human beings compare with Aristotle's views of the ultimate happiness for human beings? ● Aristotle says that when one reaches his ultimate good then he has reached his final end, which is similar to Aquinas' argument that ultimate happiness is found when one dies ● Aquinas views ultimate happiness as not just contemplation, as Aristotle does, but contemplation of God, since He is the ultimate good and therefore results in the ultimate happiness. Thomas Aquinas II evised.docx 1) What reasons does Aquinas give for claiming that the ultimate happiness for human beings is ot found i this life? ● Death, and illness and other tragedies in life,will end any happiness you happen to have, so the ultimate (eternal) happiness isnot found in this life. ● As long as a man desires and seeks something, he remains unhappy. The will naturally seeks the Divine Essence, and will continue to seek, and thus be unhappy, until itfinds it. ● To have ultimate happiness, we must try to understand God. in order to understand God, we must go to the afterlife. 2) What is "eternal law," and what is "natural law," and what is the relation between them? ● Eternal law isidentical to the mind of God as seen by God himself. ● Natural law is an individual's natural inclination to his proper act and end. ● All things partake in the eternal law b/c i is imprinted on them. ● The natural law of an individual is just the habits formed from the eternal law imprinted within them. ● Eternal Law is a set of commands to guide the Universe. ● Natural Law is a set of commands to govern rational beings. Thomas Aquinas IV.docx 1) What are the various "precepts" of the natural law, in Aquinas' view, and how does he argue for them? ● Good should e done and evil voided ● Good justification for a moral or legal rule is that i promotes the preservation of human life, and avoid ignorance (avoid offending those among whom one has to live). 2) What arguments does Aquinas present for the view that there is a natural law for allhuman beings? ● All uman beings re born ith it ● It is a habit, and one does not always display but does when finds necessary (instinct).
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'