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PSY 260, Chapter 4 Notes

by: Alexandra Notetaker

PSY 260, Chapter 4 Notes PSY 260

Marketplace > University of Miami > Psychology (PSYC) > PSY 260 > PSY 260 Chapter 4 Notes
Alexandra Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes cover all of Chapter 4, and cover what she went over in class.
Personality Psychology
Dr. Jill Kaplan
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Notetaker on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 260 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Jill Kaplan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
Chapter 4 09/16/2016 ▯ Main Topics  What are motives and how can they be measured?  How are motives expressed?  ▯ What are Motives, Instincts, Needs?  Instincts: innate, preprogrammed, biological urge satisfied by a simple action o Freud believed all human motives could be described roughly as falling categories of  Sex  Aggression o Most other theorists of the time also were instinct theorists  Motives: basic biologically-based needs of the organism to behave in a particular way. Henry Murray developed a long list of about 20 o Inanimate objects: n Acquisition, n Order o Ambition: n Achievement, n Recognition o Superiority: n Inviolacy, n Defendance o Sado-Masochism: n Aggression, n Abasement o Affection: n Affiliation, n Rejection o Murray’s Psychogenic Needs ▯ Projective Measures of Motives  Projective Measures: the presence of an ambiguous stimulus to which an individual must respond o As a person constructs a story to the stimulus, portions of his or her style of thinking-as well as a motive- are expressed and can be measured Projective Testing Exercise: The TAT  Tell a story based on a picture you are shown  What happened to bring this about?  What is going on now?  What will happen next?  Can informally score your own test: Achievement, Power, or Affiliation ▯ Self-Report: How honest are people?  Are you ambitious?  Do you seek excellence in your work?  Do you prefer to do nothing?  Are you motivated by revenge?  Are you interested in having sexual relations whenever you can? ▯ Self Report Factor Findings  Factor studies: (have hard time being honest about these) o Fear avoidance, sex, assertiveness, narcissism, sadism, achieving ▯ Forced-Choice Scale Design  With item selection matched for social desirability o Ex: Would you rather watch a sexy movie or a violent movie? Would you describe yourself as seeking revenge against those who injure you? o So many other options (diff types of movies) o Choices are key components to answer you’ll get ▯ Rom Motives to Emotion  There can be direct connections ex: anger often accompanies aggression  Happiness and joining other (affiliation)  Emotion can amplify motives ex: happiness can amplify altruism ▯ Emotions as Evolved Signal System  Darwin and the evolution of emotions  Saw commonalities in facial and other emotional expressions across speices  Harbor Seals and Chimpanzes mouth feeding  Anger in cat and dog (pictures)  The brain is designed to connect basic emotions with basic facial expressions  Paul Ekman: Curb Your Enthusiasm (Homeland Security, FBI trained to pick up on microexpressions lie detector) University of Facial Expressions  Emerging, pre-literate societies: o Tell a story: “She is sitting in a house with no axe, or bow. A pig is standing in the door looking at her and won’t move…” You can guess fear in her expression ▯ Measuring Emotional States  Self report is king!  Psychophysiology secondary  Mood and emotion are often used synonymously for emotional experience ▯ Background on Mood Measurement  Nowlis was a researcher for drug companies  Developed mood scale  Thought there were eight to twelve factors for mood  More modern approaches identified two dimensions  Russels’s Mood Circumplex ▯ Pioneer in Measuring Personality  Hans Eysenck  Wanted to be physicist but developed psychological scales  Sample Questions: o “I prefer making friends to being alone” o “I am sometimes tired, sometimes bubbling with energy, for no apparent reason” ▯ Measuring Personality  Eysenck’s 2 dimensional model of personality is based on factor analysis ▯ Conclusions  Many traditional “personality traits” reflect a two dimensional structure  Many moods reflect a 2 dimensional structure  The personality traits and the mood traits correspond, when they are rotated o Extroversion = arousal o Introversion = calmness o Neuroticism = unpleasantness o Emotional Stability = pleasantness ▯ A Study of the Happiest Students  Diener and Seligman screened 222 college students  Only the 24 happiest students were selected  They core highest on measures of well being  They had consistently happy moods over a 51 day period   Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) to assess children’s happiness ▯ “Are Emotions Fleeting?” ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯


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