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Art 1300 Lecture Notes - Week #5

by: Alexandra Furman

Art 1300 Lecture Notes - Week #5 1300

Marketplace > University of Texas at El Paso > Art > 1300 > Art 1300 Lecture Notes Week 5
Alexandra Furman
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During this week's lectures, Professor Gomez-Miraval finished her discussion of Naturalistic Style and began discussing Abstract and Non-Objective styles. She finished the discussion by discussing...
Art Appreciation
Davinia N Gomez-Miraval
Class Notes
naturalistic, Trompe-l'oei, abstract, Picasso, VanGogh, non-objective, Impressionism, impasto, matisse, French-Impression, Renoir, form, context, iconography, vanitas, memento, Processes, 2D, Media, drawings, sketches, preparatory-studies, cartoon, pencil, silverpoint, charcoal, DaVinci, fully-developed, nomeclature, dali, fixative
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Furman on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1300 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Davinia N Gomez-Miraval in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Art Appreciation in Art at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
Art 1300 September 20, 2016 Professor Gomez-Miraval Lecture Notes Naturalism, Abstraction, and Non-Objective Continued KEY PEOPLE KEY VOCAB KEY INFO KEY PLACES Naturalistic style  reflects what we see in reality, we should be able to look at the workand identify it  Ex: statue of woman (who brings seasons) fighting with her husband (who wants to bring her to the underworld) o Throughout their struggle, we see the seasonal changes of spring and fall o Formal Analysis:  Size? Life sized and made of marble  Material? Hard marble, stone  Visual Texture/Chiaroscuro? None of that happening here  Scale and proportion? Yes  If we examine the woman’s torso, the artist sculpts the marble to show the veins inthe man’s hands, the fingers pressing into her stomach and thigh give flesh like qualities  Ex: Painting of the Brown Rabbit o Some overlappingto show what is closer o Has chiaroscuro o Scale and proportion o Extreme detail in the drawing of the fur in order to give implied texture o Use of watercolorand a single bristle brush to get that quality o Reflection in the eye helps us see what the rabbitis seeing, portrays actual things we can identify  Ex: Woman slitting man’s throat o Chiaroscuro to help portraydepth to the painting and give dimensions to the tone in their flesh  Ex: Painting of money and monopoly pieces o Trompe l’oei means “fool the eye”  This is part of the naturalistic style but it is sorealistic that our mind convinces us that it is real On the Exam #2:  If given a painting of cupid on the test #2, for example, then that would not be considered naturalistic…because although we can recognize it, cupid is not real  If it is an unfinished painting, but the part that is done is realisticand we can recognize it, it is still considered Naturalistic (but we need to examine their scale and proportions to make sure that it is still realistic) o Some artists believedthat women needed an extra vertebrae inorder to truly be beautiful; this elongated spine and other subsequent proportions are enough to classifyit as not being naturalistic. In fact this technique falls in the transitional area betweennaturalistic and abstraction Abstract  Artwork that departs from the actual appearance of things  Grabs the essence of the object that is inspiring the artist  Ex: Ladies of Avalon o We can recognize that the figures are women, not necessarily the most beautiful looking o We can recognize that there is fruit inthe painting but not necessarily what it is o No chiaroscuro or visual texture o Some overlappingbut not in a clearway to give depth o Scale and proportion is not accurate (lookat the feet compared to the body, the facial figures compared to the sizes of their entire faces, the shape of their breasts versus how breasts look inactuality)  Ex: Abstract Cow o The subject is not veryclear… if we have to think “It seems like a…” then it is going to be abstract  Picasso’sLady o He wants the viewer to look at the ladyfrom different aspects and at different parts of her body all at the same time  No visual perspective or chiaroscuro  Her figure has extra fingers, and her breasts are different than naturalism would portray  Also we see different perspectives of her face and body compiled into the single form of her body (profile perspective,head on, etc.)  Van Gogh’s Blackbirds and yellow crop painting o We can discern the basicsbut not specifics,like what type of birds there are and what type of crop is being grown Non-Objective  Completely departs from the actual appearance of things  It make reference to absolutely no objects….there are no subjects, nothing  Allows for the viewers to see what they wishto see inthe work, base it off their feelings (chaotic, messy, structured, calming, etc.)  It goes off your reaction, how you’re feeling  Based on the applicationof paint by the artist, the force of application, the amount of energy in the painting, amount and types of colors,etc.  Can be found in sculptures o There is no real subject, it canlook like whatever you come to think it looks like  Aspects are placed verycarefully in order to elicita response from the viewerand convey emotion  Sometimes artists can mess with the viewer’smind: geometric shapes placedin a composition entitled “The Airplane.” o The shapes are completely non-objective o The shapes do not form a recognizable object for the viewer to acknowledge Style can Change from time to time  Ex: Venetian painting of San Marco 1800s o Very naturalistic  Ex: Venetian painting of San Marco 1900s o It is abstract, we have to strain to see the forms although we can tell that there is a church inthe background o Breaks the rules of how the paint is applied,etc.  Ex: Van Gogh, impressionism, impasto o Sometimes the style can be analyzed to determine who the artist is if they have not signed the artwork o For Van Gogh, the impasto technique is unique to him and is basedon the application of the paint  Picasso o personal style is analytic cubism o neutral palette, geometric shapes, multiple points of view seen at the same time  Matisse o Changes his style often and continuously tries new things o Cutouts, dark, peppy, etc. o Ex: The lady setting a table  Over time he paints the same subject matter but indifferent styles  French impressionism o An art movement o Several artists that follow the same ideas and the same rules, but each artist still maintains their own unique style within that movement o Ex: Renoir’s ballerina  One is more realistic,elegant and the other is more chaotic, not as put together  Different approaches in materials and style and approaches to the subject matter within the same movement  Ex: The pieta (pity) – Greek Version o Mary is holding her son Jesus after the crucifixion o His body is in verygood shape for what he has just experienced o Their facial expressions convey a calming sense of emotion, both Mary and Jesus; peaceful; spiritual portrayal  Ex: The pieta (German Version) o The figures of Mary and Jesus are more realisticallyportrayed showing his mangled body and the raw emotion on both of their faces o More abstract because the proportions are more out of whack Form and Content  Form – the visual qualities or properties of the workof art (what willbe used/examined for assignment #2) o Include the materials, scale,and principles of design, and visual elements o Ex: Kissing statues, “The Kiss”  Subject matter = the couple kissing  Made of marble  Life-sized  Organic  Naturalistic  Content – the meaning, the message, what the artist is trying to say o Ex: The Kiss  What is the artist trying to say with this kiss, why is he showing us this kiss?  Conveys passionate love (from her point of view),or could convey a sexual love, or a romanticized versionof love  We cantell that she is head over heels in love with her; her arms are wrappedaround his neck and she grabs him to pull him closer to her  He is not as inlove because his arms are veryrelaxed (If he was reallyinfatuated withher, his hands would be all over her naked body rather than at her sides) o Ex: The kiss (of Easter Island like statues)  Made of 3ft tall limestone  Abstract  Actual shape  Geometric origin  Same subject matter as the previous work“the Kiss”  Conveys a sense of love  The feeling of love is mutually shared between them (both figures arms are wrappedaround each other)  Conveys the more traditional idealof love  If we separate the two figures they lose their form (as opposed to separating the two figures in the sculpture mentioned above…their bodies would still be mostly in tact without the other) o Ex: Arnold Feeny portrait (wedding) – the 1400s  Has visual textures as discussedin previous lectures  Iconography  The study of symbols ina workof art  Why do we need this? o At a certainpoint in time, people didnot know how to readand write…sothe wayto educate the masses was through images  Lambs - A symbol for Jesus  The portrait serves the purpose of being their “marriage certificate”  At the time the painting was created, it was acceptable.At this point in time, it can be construed as very sexist  What is being conveyed through this painting?  His hand is raisedinfront of him like he is making a promise  Her hand is open and palm is facing up (to show she is asking something and/or taking something); her other hand is laidacross her stomach to show she promises to bear children  Her dress is green = shows that she is fertile, readyto give him children  History tells us that this marriage did not actually bear any childrenironically  If we lookat the positioning of their bodies within the room, we see Arnold Feeny next to the window (to show that he leaves,works, and providesfor them) and she is next to the bed (to help convey her purpose of bearing childrenand staying home)  The bed posts reinforce the importance of the woman’s fertility, the broom conveys that her place inthe marriage is to stay home and take care of home and family  The fruit underneath the window sill on the floor conveys their wealth(they can just have fruit lying around even out of season); untouched fruit can imply a symbol of virginity  Glass beads next to the mirror portray purity (because light can go through the beads and not break them, alsoconveys virginity by relating the beads to her hymen)  Kneeling area shows their faithfulness  Neither of them are wearingshoes, this portrays religious aspects (Moses was told to remove shoes because he was in a holy place); the bedroom for them is their holy place,an intimate location  God is present is inthe chandelier, there are crosses throughout its structure; the one burning candle also reinforces the presence of God, God = light  Her veil alsoconveys a sense of purity (End of lecture for the 20 ) Iconography (cont’d)  Vanitas – means vanity o Self-portraits, overabundance of material belongings, whatever conveys vanity o Makes reference to the Bible;the Bible says that when we die, we willnot be taking anything withus o Ex: “Memento Maury” = when the artist places objects in their workthat allude to death, dying, or of time left inlife o Artist drewhimself with all his belonging  Highlights his looks, his family (through their portraits),his riches (shown by the handful of coins in front of the family portraits,just tossed there as if the money didn’t matter; alsothere are books and manuscripts present to show that he is educated and has the money to own books and go to school…shows he is part of the elite)  We can tell he is a sculptor, a painter, and musician basedon the art in the painting and the recorderlike instrument and the palette in the background hanging on the wall  We can tell he enjoys parties (the pipe)  Has multiple women he’s affiliated with due to the woman’s figure in the background and the pearlson the table  Serves the purpose to remind us of our own mortality…we are all going to die (Skull on the table alsoserves as a reminder of this, hour glass withmore sand on the bottom and less on time…it is running out of time literally,the candle is recently blownout and we can see the smoke fizzling out, the flowers on the table have been recently cut meaning they willhave a few days left, bubbles in the air willonly lastmere seconds) o Ex: woman’s moment painting  We can she has vanity for herself based on the self-portrait and the mirror  The beads help to convey purity, dice next to the beads could convey that she is a tease (avocadoplacednext to the beads and dice to convey testosterone)  The candle alsoappeals to the amount of time left alive 2-D Media  Processes – how we make art, what tools are needed, what the different tools will actually do  2D media: drawing, painting, and printmaking o Drawing  Least expensive, not necessarilyany easier  3 different types of drawings  Sketches  Preparatorystudies (cartoon)  Fully developed  2 types of media  Dry Media o Pencil o Silverpoint o Charcoal o Conte crayon o Calk o Pastel  Liquid media o Pen and ink o Brush and ink o Wash  Sketch o Records and idea or something that the artist has seen(“copying”) o Usually for the eyes of the artistonly o All artists have their ownsketchbook to recordtheir ideas  Famous sketchbook comes from Leonardo Da Vinci  Da Vinci used a sketchbook for both purposes of recording ideas (ex. Flying machine) and things that he has seen (ex. The human body)  Recorded the first drawing of a fetus-in-utero  Used his sketchbook as a means to attempt to figure out how the worldand nature works  Preparatory Studies o The can be contained in sketchbooks or not o Usually for the eyes of the artistonly o They are studies for other projects  The drawing is the precursor to a painting or sculpture, etc.  It’s preparingfor the finished project  It helps them to figure out the best composition and details prior to spending a large amount of money to make the final product  We see this through multiple aspects of the composition drawnon the same paper inorder to look at the different possibilities o Sometimes the drawings canbe executed in a better manner than the finished painting or sculpture because we can see the details more clearly o Sometimes the drawings are done on a small scale prior to the completion of the work in a much larger scale  Ex. The preparatorydrawings for Michelangelo’s workin the Sistine chapel o Other times, preparatorydrawings can be incomplete just so the artist can work out the details that need working out  Ex. Painting of Ophelia  The preparatorydrawing was a sketch of how her hair and dress float inthe water of a bathtub, inorder to draw it more accurately in the painting  Also wanted to get the correctemotion on her face as she is being portrayed committing suicide o Also utilize preparatorydrawings to make sure the work willbe what the patron (the personfunding the artists’ work at that point in time) wants  Often multiple aspects are drawnto give them options prior to fulling completing the work o Preparatory Drawings allowthe artist to make changes before deciding what to include in their work  Da Vinci’s preparatorydrawings withhis work on the Last Supper  Juggles the idea of the weeping/drunk man next to Jesus, Jesus looking in another direction, placingJudas across from Jesus to show that he is not worthy to have been on the same side as Jesus and the holy disciples o Sometimes preparatorydrawings are done withcolor in order to see if the colors willworktogether inthe finished product Cartoon  Still a preparatory drawing; it’s a subcategory  It is a full sized preparatorydrawing  Used cartoons specificallyfor the painting technique of fresco painting o Ex: Da Vinci’s works Fully Developed  Finished work of art  It is a work of art on its own  They are exhibited, shown, and soldas works of art Tools  Pencil o Inexpensive (leastexpensive tool of art) o Made of graphite (used to be lead but that was determined to be poisonous) o Ability to erase markings o Hardness and softness of the pencil  Conveyed through the letters on the pencil  Nomenclature  9H (hardest)……2H, 1H, HB, 1B, 2B…………6B (softest)  A #2 pencil is HB  H = hard, don’t blend easilyand can ripthe paper if pressing too hard, thinner, conveys more delicate detail, these pencils lasta very long time, easier to use to show value, lightest  B = soft, blend easily, thicker, darkest, depending on how they are used these pencils do not lastvery long, o Need many types of pencils in order to convey value o No eraser (can’t make mistakes because later techniques willbe used where you won’t be able to erase,if a mistake is made, we need to figure out how to mask this or fix it without erasing) alsobecause eraserscan take the texture out of the paper and can damage the drawing (some are even colored and addsomething to the drawingthat is not wanted) o Linear quality, all the functions of line are able to be conveyed withthe use of the pencil o Ex: woman’s face and hair portrait  We can see the hair closerto her face has been drawnwitha B pencil because it is darker and each line is larger  The eyes have utilized chiaroscuro  This drawingis more linear rather than full on chiaroscuro o Wet looking drawings canbe made by dipping the tip of the pencil in water and drawing o Artists can be rough withpencils or extremely delicate with high detailed areas o Ex: Salvador Dali’s woman withdrawersas her body  Combines all the techniques and pencil types to create a workwith value o Value Scale  Highlight ----(pencils)-----midgray -------------darkest  Pencil workfalls in the middle between highlight and mid gray Silver point  Could also be called middle point, but if you refer to it as silverpoint, you can easily remember that the material is silver  Need a chemically preparedpaper to draw on top of o The addition of the chemicals allowthe friction of the metal withthe paper to leave behind burrs inthe paper (pieces of the metal) and the metal becomes oxidized  When silveris oxidized on the chemical paper it leaves a black mark behind  The first lines left behind are considered blind lines  Does not allowfor mistakes  Shows line quality Charcoal  Material is made of burnt wood, it is compacted into a solidform  It is soft and powdery when utilized  When you work with charcoal it is recommended that you wear a mask to prevent yourself from breathing inthe material  Nomenclature o Only has Bs because it is all soft o Highlight…..(Pencils)….(Charcoal)….Mid Gray………………Darkest  Main characteristic = it is very VERY dark o It is a velvety dark black o It is usually used when you want to achieve the very darkcolor o You can erase, blend, use linear quality, rough, or smooth…if you erase there willbe a little residue left behind but it is still erasable o It smudges o It is such a volatile material that it doesn’t fully adhere to the paper  FIXATIVE helps to deal with this predicament  It is a sticky substance that acts like glue between the particles of the charcoal and the paper, not a 100% solution…it just helps to lessen the smudging effects  Workable fixative allowsyou to continue to add on top of the fixative  Final fixative is the last step you wouldn’t add after that o Can be utilized to create chiaroscuro o Soft focus effect  Charcoal is powderywhich creates fuzzy lines rather than sharp and crisplines ***For exam #2 remember the characteristics of the tools and what they are made of***


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