ANTH 1010 – Food Production
ANTH 1010 – Food Production ANTH 1010 -090
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ANTH 1010 -090
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazmine Beckstrand on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1010 -090 at University of Utah taught by Chunfen Zhou in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
ANTH 1010 – Food Production Definitions Key Concepts Locations * = on exam Subsistence Not just a list of foods Considers: Resources available Technology used to extract food Social and political institutions created to acquire, process, and distribute food Settlement patterns related to food acquisition Non-Industrial Subsistence Hunter-gatherers or foragers Pastoralists Horticulturalists Agriculturalists Forager or Hunter/Gather Exploitation of wild food sources Minimal management (burning) Seasonally mobile (not nomadic) Small group sizes Highly egalitarian Division of labor Fissionable Sharing norms 75% bilateral societies Limited technology Limited time dedication to work 17 hour/week food Gathering: collecting of wild plants, small land fauna, and shellfish Small and non-mobile resources Use some sort of tool for extraction Hunting: actively looking for, killing, butchering, and consuming animals Mobile species pursued and captured by some method, with hunter having no guarantee of success Foraging: people who have seasonal rounds, whereby they occupy a series of camps as they move about the landscape, but have no permanent home. Scavenging: locating and using animals that are already dead, rather than hunting and killing. Opportunistic for humans, not planned Foraging - 180 societies surveyed Gathering primary 30% Hunting primary 25% Fishing primary 38% Causes and Consequences of AR Causes? Climate change and stability? Population growth? Expansion into limited environments Consequences? Sedentary lifestyle Population growth/density Complex social organization Poorer health Infection disease Technological change Subsistence Modes: 1 Pastoralism Herd large groups of domesticated animals (always herbivores) Convert unusable biomass (grass into milk/meat) Requires much land More productive (calories per acre) than H/G but less than horticulture Opportunistic agriculture Mobile Trade essential Male dominated Low female status Ecology Grasslands Low rain Nomadic Animals and their products are the only resource No agriculture Highly mobile Ex. Saami (Laaps) reindeer herders Semi-nomadic Seasonal rounds where animals are moved from Some horticulture Most common Ex. Massai Semi-Sedentary Component or larger agriculture systems Animals important, but agriculture more so Majority people are farmers Animals herded in pastures far from main community Ex. Basque. 1800s Plains Anglo-American 1 Horticulture Small scale, low intensity farming Digging stick Large populations than other two subsistence modes Small surpluses Occasional H/G Slash and burn or Swidden Shifting cultivation Labor limited Ecology tropics 1 Agriculture Large-scale, high intensity farming Same piece of land farmed over Plow animals More complex technology for soil/water control Technology supplements labor Landscape management (terraces, Chinampas, Irrigation) Largest populations Large surpluses Complex societies Social stratification, ethnic political integration, complex division of labor Land limited Foragers Subsist from non-domesticates Approx. 90% human history Low population size/density Food sharing is risk reduction No central authority Occasional polygyny Bilateral Patrilocal/ambilocal Egalitarian - communal property Horticulturalists Garden cultivators Small-scale; low intensity farming Household provisioning Food sharing is risk reduction No central authority Occasional polygyny Patrilineal/matrilineal Limited stratification Pastoralists Domesticated animals Herbivores Mobile Nomadic and transhumance Ecology Grasslands, cold, arid High fertility Patrilineal Corporate livestock owning Patrilocal, polygyny, patriarchy Bride wealth Male strength and valor Age sets Vulnerability Agriculturalists Plows and animal Technology supplements labor Land limited Highest fertility, population growth Infectious disease Patrilineal, polygyny, and monogamy Isogamy, hypergyny and celibacy Complex societies Social stratification Ethnic political integration Complex division of labor
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