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ANTH 1010 – Food Production

by: Jazmine Beckstrand

ANTH 1010 – Food Production ANTH 1010 -090

Marketplace > University of Utah > ANTH 1010 -090 > ANTH 1010 Food Production
Jazmine Beckstrand
The U
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover the class lecture material and assigned reading for the fifth week of class.
Culture & Human Experience
Chunfen Zhou
Class Notes
food, production, Subsistence, Anthropology, hunter, Gatherer, Pastoralist, agriculture
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazmine Beckstrand on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1010 -090 at University of Utah taught by Chunfen Zhou in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
ANTH 1010 – Food Production Definitions Key Concepts Locations * = on exam Subsistence  Not just a list of foods  Considers:  Resources available  Technology used to extract food  Social and political institutions created to acquire, process, and distribute food  Settlement patterns related to food acquisition Non-Industrial Subsistence  Hunter-gatherers or foragers  Pastoralists  Horticulturalists  Agriculturalists Forager or Hunter/Gather  Exploitation of wild food sources  Minimal management (burning)  Seasonally mobile (not nomadic)  Small group sizes  Highly egalitarian  Division of labor  Fissionable  Sharing norms  75% bilateral societies  Limited technology  Limited time dedication to work  17 hour/week food Gathering: collecting of wild plants, small land fauna, and shellfish  Small and non-mobile resources  Use some sort of tool for extraction Hunting: actively looking for, killing, butchering, and consuming animals  Mobile species pursued and captured by some method, with hunter having no guarantee of success Foraging: people who have seasonal rounds, whereby they occupy a series of camps as they move about the landscape, but have no permanent home. Scavenging: locating and using animals that are already dead, rather than hunting and killing.  Opportunistic for humans, not planned Foraging - 180 societies surveyed  Gathering primary 30%  Hunting primary 25%  Fishing primary 38% Causes and Consequences of AR  Causes?  Climate change and stability?  Population growth?  Expansion into limited environments  Consequences?  Sedentary lifestyle  Population growth/density  Complex social organization  Poorer health  Infection disease  Technological change Subsistence Modes: 1 Pastoralism  Herd large groups of domesticated animals (always herbivores)  Convert unusable biomass (grass into milk/meat)  Requires much land  More productive (calories per acre) than H/G but less than horticulture  Opportunistic agriculture  Mobile  Trade essential  Male dominated  Low female status  Ecology  Grasslands  Low rain  Nomadic  Animals and their products are the only resource  No agriculture  Highly mobile  Ex. Saami (Laaps) reindeer herders  Semi-nomadic  Seasonal rounds where animals are moved from  Some horticulture  Most common  Ex. Massai  Semi-Sedentary  Component or larger agriculture systems  Animals important, but agriculture more so  Majority people are farmers  Animals herded in pastures far from main community  Ex. Basque. 1800s Plains Anglo-American 1 Horticulture  Small scale, low intensity farming  Digging stick  Large populations than other two subsistence modes  Small surpluses  Occasional H/G  Slash and burn or Swidden  Shifting cultivation  Labor limited  Ecology  tropics 1 Agriculture  Large-scale, high intensity farming  Same piece of land farmed over  Plow animals  More complex technology for soil/water control  Technology supplements labor  Landscape management (terraces, Chinampas, Irrigation)  Largest populations  Large surpluses  Complex societies  Social stratification, ethnic political integration, complex division of labor  Land limited Foragers  Subsist from non-domesticates  Approx. 90% human history  Low population size/density  Food sharing is risk reduction  No central authority  Occasional polygyny  Bilateral  Patrilocal/ambilocal  Egalitarian - communal property Horticulturalists  Garden cultivators  Small-scale; low intensity farming  Household provisioning  Food sharing is risk reduction  No central authority  Occasional polygyny  Patrilineal/matrilineal  Limited stratification Pastoralists  Domesticated animals  Herbivores  Mobile  Nomadic and transhumance  Ecology  Grasslands, cold, arid  High fertility  Patrilineal  Corporate livestock owning  Patrilocal, polygyny, patriarchy  Bride wealth  Male strength and valor  Age sets  Vulnerability Agriculturalists  Plows and animal  Technology supplements labor  Land limited  Highest fertility, population growth  Infectious disease  Patrilineal, polygyny, and monogamy  Isogamy, hypergyny and celibacy  Complex societies  Social stratification  Ethnic political integration  Complex division of labor


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