Development of the Early Colonies/Colonial Life in America
Development of the Early Colonies/Colonial Life in America HIST 2300
Popular in History of the United States to 1877
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Olges on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2300 at Texas Tech University taught by Verrone in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 447 views. For similar materials see History of the United States to 1877 in History at Texas Tech University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Development of New England, Middle Colonies, & Southern Colonies (1620-1751)/Colonial Life in America (1608-1775) Thursday, September 8, 2016 10:51 AM Chronology so far… • 1660 in Virginia (w/ Jamestown): over 60k people living there 1. Spain and France get to America first • Pilgrims came to Jamestown (Virginia) on The Mayflower 2. First British completely disappears ○ …but missed it completely 3. British creates Jamestown Ended up at present day Massachusetts (cape cod) ○ Side note: there was no actual Plymouth rock ○ Establish Plymouth colony Came over for religious freedom, colony founded on this □ Puritan separatists ○ Before they came to New World, they wrote out on paper how they would govern their colony Called The Mayflower Compact Set who's in charge, how colony would be set up, and rules Church led colony (no separation of church and state) □ Led everything Did this on their own, without Britain's help or permission □ This sets the course for us going out and setting our own rules with the USA later ○ Thanksgiving did happen Had the natives that helped them thru winter Ate deer meat • Massachusetts Bay Colony ○ Come in @ 1630 (ten years after pilgrims arrive) In 11 ships 700 people (300 died on the way over) ○ Puritans (not puritan separatists like the pilgrims) ○ Came for religious freedom, like the pilgrims ○ Ran things differently, the way they wanted Added into the American ideology ○ 1631: 17 more ships show up, with over a 1000 people Then had like 2000 people, huge undertaking ○ They wrote down their rules ○ Becomes Boston ○ John Winthrop, minister, leads colony Religious head and political head □ No separation of church and state Had small group of men that helped him run colony Claimed his colony was the best, a shining city on the hill (first to say this phrase- "America is the best country in the world") □ Thomas Jefferson later writes about the shining city on the hill □ Says city will embody stability, order, andnot democracy (he hated democracy) Thought uniformed people couldn't run the thing well Was oligarchy, then Did not tolerate any form of defiance □ Anne Hutchinson confronted John about adulterous elders, and how they didn't need him to talk to god; called out for hypocrisy a) Started to have own religious meetings w/ other people b) Her and family kicked out of colony @ 1638 c) Meets up with Roger Williams i) They founded Providence colony (eventually Rhode Island) d) Eventually killed by Indians on the way to New Amsterdam • Connecticut ○ Thomas Hooker takes group out of Massachusetts Bay colony to go to Connecticut ○ They write down their rules Called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut □ Was a constitution □ Said the government would tax everyone in the colony Setting a future precedent □ Those in charge had special immunity not applying to rest of the common folk History of the United States to 1877 Page 1 Called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut □ Was a constitution □ Said the government would tax everyone in the colony Setting a future precedent □ Those in charge had special immunity not applying to rest of the common folk □ 1st duty of leader of colony is to follow word of god ○ Called a "Christian Commonwealth" ○ Name of colony: "New Haven" ○ Had its official Christian religion, but didn't actually have to be a member of that religion This is actual freedom of religion (first colony to do this), unlike all the other colonies • "Congregationalist Church" • Rhode Island ○ Had full religious freedom- any religion ○ Official name: State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations • New York ○ Dutch colony Traders, had powerful navy ○ Once known as "New Amsterdam" ○ Built a big fortification wall w/ cannons Where Wall St. now is ○ British fight out the Dutch and take over by 1674 • New Jersey ○ Two political allies of royal family (Britain) given this land to split ○ Eventually consolidates to make New Jersey • Pennsylvania ○ Philadelphia will be the model for a lot of what the US is Will be the capital thru the revolutionary war ○ People leave the Jerseys to go here ○ Founded by Penn family, a big Quaker family William Penn founded and named the colony- name means "Penn's Woods" ○ Anyone can settle of any belief Had Charter of Liberties □ Their constitution- saying religious freedom and political freedom and so on This sets the precedent for US ○ Population booms because of colony's openness • Maryland ○ Mimics Pennsylvania colony - except more of a Catholic colony than Quaker Another precedent is set for US ○ Set up town St. Mary's ○ 2nd Lord Baltimore in Britain helped fund Maryland Baltimore named after him • Carolinas ○ Proprietorship colony Get permission from crown to go settle ○ Set up Charlestown (present day S Carolina) Named after the king ○ Aristocrats stay in south ○ Farmers and poorer people go north These groups fight □ King splits the colony to two to stop fighting • Georgia ○ Smaller criminals taken over with soldiers to run Georgia colony ○ General James Oglethorpe sets up and runs colony military style ○ No rum, only small chunks of land could be owned Could not go past Appalachian mountains or you die No blacks - not even for slaves □ Used former prisoners for work instead Very restricted trade w/ native Americans Colonial Life in America • Who are these people? ○ Largely nuclear families Families had more kids in the south □ Limited space in the denser, more urban north • Population keeps increasing, never a total loss More and more people keep coming History of the United States to 1877 Page 2 ○ More and more people keep coming ○ Colonies become self-sustainable • Divorce ○ Not legal to divorce because you don't like them anymore ○ Woman could bring a divorce against the man Although men usually had more success w/ divorce ○ Could divorce if… Wife is unable to conceive If partner left town • Kids in rural areas were expected and made to work ○ In urban areas, kids not really have to work Had opportunities for school • Gender roles ○ Men ran everything ○ Women couldn't own property ○ Girls raised to be a lady (like southern belle) • Avg. lifespan ○ In New England - 16 years ○ Middle colonies - 45 years South colonies - 35 to 40 years ○ • What these people do… ○ Males i. Horseracing along w/ gambling ii. Hunting iii. Drinking ○ Females i. Sowing ii. Cooking iii. Gossiping/socializing • Education ○ Will separate out American society Formal education v. informal education Higher educated people (college) have huge advantage ○ First college in Jamestown, Virginia ○ Harvard was only for white males who were to be ministers ○ Most of colleges in northern colonies ○ Literacy rate - highest in New England, and goes down the further south you go • Cities ○ Why go to cities? More stuff to do Business Social Education Healthcare □ Lower infant mortality rate ○ Major cities (in order - 1770) i. Philadelphia ii. New York iii. Boston iv. Charleston, SC v. Newport, RI These are the centers of revolutionary thought - because of higher education ○ Colony population rankings (1770) i. Virginia ii. Pennsylvania iii. Massachusetts iv. Maryland v. North Carolina In total, about 2.2 mil people in the new world ○ Urban problems Crime Overcrowding (not super huge issue quite yet, but still) Disease □ Sanitation No real sanitation system Fire □ No fire department History of the United States to 1877 Page 3 □ No fire department □ Everything is made of wood □ No water system □ Oil lamps □ Buildings very close together □ Lightning • News ○ Means of news Main way of news was thru newspapers □ First newspaper in 1704 in Boston □ Eventually all cities have their own newspaper Word of mouth ○ Important to communicate prices of items and where to get them As well as political ideology ○ By 1765 - 25 newspapers exist • Religion ○ Model of American religion based off of Puritan group ○ A bunch of towns grow from the puritan model Run by the "select men" ○ New England most religiously diverse Includes… □ Puritans □ Congregationalists □ Presbyterians □ Calvinists □ Baptists □ Catholics □ Jews □ Hindus □ Muslims □ Quakers □ And so on…. Includes 22 religions total -Last line on StudySoup ○ Played massive role in daily life, like it does today ○ Religious fervor goes up and down • Enlightenment (late 1600s) ○ European movement w/ science and religion ○ Most leaders embrace Enlightenment thinking, even those religious ○ Brought to America thru books and essays ○ Two basic beliefs before Enlightenment Earth was at center of universe God would intervene directly in human affairs ○ Said humans have reason and should use it world is governed by laws of science Individuals have a voice in politics, how their gov't should be run Locke brought forth the "natural rights" idea Society should progress, not stay in the status quo □ Nation should be able to improve itself ○ Ben Franklin played big part in getting Enlightenment thinking going ○ Deism: believe in god, but believe god created everything and then stepped away Lots of leaders were this way, leading to believing humans can change things • The Great Awakening (1720s) ○ Goes against Enlightenment ○ Christian movement saying god is definitely in charge of universe and your life Said you could have personal relationship with god ○ Suppresses Enlightenment thinking somewhat ○ Results of the Awakening Divided existing congregations down the middle □ Methodism spawns out of this, among others Some colleges turn to more secular curriculum □ Like Princeton and Harvard American public and colonies got great lesson on how to question authority □ Allows the American revolution to actually happen • Between Enlightenment and Great Awakening… ○ Colonies choose to blend the two, keeping religion but making their own choices History of the United States to 1877 Page 4
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