SPTE 110, Week 5 Notes on Youth Sport and Coaching Sport
SPTE 110, Week 5 Notes on Youth Sport and Coaching Sport SPTE 110 001
Popular in Sport and Entertainment in American Life
Popular in Sport and Entertainment Management
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by David Burns on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPTE 110 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Sidney E Kenyon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Sport and Entertainment in American Life in Sport and Entertainment Management at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Youth Sports Historical Development of Youth Sport o Expanded from lower-class activity (before WWII) to include all social classes o Little League baseball began in 1939 o Majority of sport was geared toward boys until the 1970s o Evolved from child-centered “play” to organized sport o Title IX was enacted in 1972, increased girls’ participation o Family and societal factors affect popularity Both parents working outside home Fear of child predators Safe haven for inner-city kids Specialized training Sponsors of Youth Sport o Community and parks programs (local recreation centers) o Community organizations such as YMCAs o Nonprofit sport organizations o Corporate sponsors: national, regional, local o Commercial sport and fitness clubs o Private organizations that rent private facilities Long-Term Athlete Development Plan o Sets a program for training, competition, and recovery based on developmental age o Children develop needed fundamental movement and motor skills Privatization of Youth Sport o Funding for public youth sport has been decreased o Entrepreneurs see money in competitive travel teams and private coaching o Popular services include summer camps, private lessons, and sport academies Current Status of Youth Sport o About 50% of US children participate in youth sport o Team sport participation peaks at 11 o More than 70% of US kids drop out of youth sport before high school They will drop out of athletics unless they can access nonprivatized recreational leagues Why do children drop out? o Increased pressure to win o Stress on high performance o Participation expenses o Risk of injury o Participation in alternative sports o Lack of training for youth coaches Gender Differences o Boys enter sport sooner than girls o Girls drop out sooner than boys o Girls more likely to take part in a wide array of sports; boys stick to more traditional o Girls in rural and urban areas participate less than boys in the same areas o Participation rate is similar for girls and boys in suburban areas Does sport matter? o More than 80% of executive business women participated in organized sport in middle and high school o Girls of color have a lower participation rate than Caucasian girls Issues to consider o Increase in overweight and obesity among youth o Increasing cost of sport o Rise of extreme sports 600% increase since 1990 X Games now mainstream Not a fad! Changes in sport preference o Participation decrease in baseball and football o Participation increase in lacrosse, rugby, gymnastics, and beach volleyball o Basketball has the highest participation rate for boys and girls Organized Youth Sport o Athlete Organized Sport Pickup games run by players Participation declining over the past 20 years Results in decrease in physical activity Lots of action for all players Flexible rules Time with friends Freedom Kids learn how to work within a group, make decisions, and get along with peers o Adult-organized sport Sports and leagues run by parents, coaches, and organizations Participation increasing Focuses on skill development and proper positioning Reinforces conformity through strict rules and strategies Adults choose competition level, arbitrate rule infractions, and determine who plays and where Can do harm due to lack of knowledge about safety, healthy competition, and kids’ emotional needs Balanced and positive parental involvement helps athletes gain more from sport Burnout in Youth Sport o Excessive stress related to game outcomes, performance anxiety, and low self-esteem Coaching Sport Coaches’ Possible Positive Influence o Consistency over time o Innovative training methods and strategies o Positive leadership (e.g. democratic) o Athletes’ loyalty, education, and integrity Coaching Code of Ethics o Example: National Federation of State High School Associations code Coaches’ Possible Negative Influences o Coaching without training o Punishing poor performance o Focusing on winning at all costs o Instilling prejudice o Inflicting physical or mental abuse Ways to Improve Coaching o Preseason meetings for players and parents o Clear organizational expectations for coaches o Training in effective coaching skills o Effective procedures for filing complaints o Consequences for inappropriate behavior Status of Coaching o More than 3 million youth sport coaches (mostly volunteers) o Coaching standards few, often low, and often set by organizing group o National standards for sport coaches o Difficulty in defining coaching as profession Problems with relying on volunteers o Need for coaches is great, so leagues welcome volunteers o Results in inexperienced, untrained coaches o Even with training, turnover rate is high o Gives only short-term benefit to knowledge base and then new coaches are needed Coach Training: Youth sport and high school o NFHS coach education program o Adopted by all 51 state associations o Human Kinetics Coach Education o SHAPE America o National Youth Sports Coaches Association Coach Training: College and Pros o College: most require coaches to have a degree and perhaps playing experience o Professional: Most require coaches to have experience in playing or coaching Aveneues for getting and staying trained o College (offered at nearly 180 U.S. institutions) o National governing body Certification based on knowledge, skill, and competence Geared toward a specific group o National agency Human Kinetics Coach Education National Youth Sports Coaches Association o National governing body (NGB) o Many opportunities for self-improvement Coaching at the Professional Level o Often need experience playing at pro level o Must accept the business of sport and commitment to winning o Need to help athletes develop mental skills Coaching High-Performance Amateurs o Teaching of fundamental skills o Knowledge of both personal and skill development o Knowledge of the mental side of sport o Ability to communicate with parents and agents Coaching Intercollegiate Sport o Variations based on school’s divisional status o Experience in playing or coaching the sport o Knowledge of NCAA rules (United States) o Commitment to winning Coaching Interscholastic Sport o Extra job for supplemental pay o Ability to teach fundamental skills o Organizational and administrative skills o Knowledge of both personal and skill development Coaching Youth Sport o Care about athletes’ needs and welfare o Teach rules of the game and basic strategy o Create a safe and fun environment o Understand both personal and skill development Coaching Males and Females o Females and males look for similar qualities in a coach o Females are more motivated to improve their own performance o Males are more motivated to beat others Traditional Description of Coaches o Conservative o Clear concept of right and wrong o Respect for tradition and authority o Focus on development o Behavior modeled on past coaches Current Description of Coaches o Coach profile has changed in recent years Less autocratic More business oriented and team centered Perhaps more tolerant of difference o Asses your own personality and create a coaching philosophy Challenges facing future coaches o Develop national standards for specific coaching levels Adoption of coaching standards by all organizations National certification process for all coaches Mandated continuing education Public awareness of coach education and certification Recruit and retain good coaches Recruit female coaches at all levels Ensure athletes’ safety Develop coach recognition system based on criteria other than wins and losses Recruit minority coaches