week 5 notes
week 5 notes psyc 3330
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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Appolonia Redmon on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psyc 3330 at Georgia Southern University taught by Conrad in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Abnormal psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia Southern University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Week 5 notes Pg.1 Diagnoses Specific phobias: DSM5 Criteria • Marked and disproportionate fear consistently triggered by specific objects of situations • The object or situation is avoided or else endured with intense anxiety • Some common phobias: Social anxiety disorder: dsm5 criteria • Marked and disproportionate fear consistently triggered by exposure to potential social scrutiny • Exposure to the trigger leads to intense anxiety about being evaluated negatively • Trigger situations are avoided or else endured with intense anxiety Panic attacks vs. panic disorder • Panic attacks can happen to anyone, many adults experience them • As many as 28.3% of adults have had a panic attack during their lifetime, but only 4.7% actually have panic disorder • Can indicate the presence of other anxiety disorders Types of panic attacks: • Expected • unexpected Panic disorder: dsm5 criteria • Recurrent unexpected panic attacks • At least 1 month of concern or worry about the possibility of more attacks occurring or the consequences of an attack, or maladaptive behavioral changes because of the attacks Week 5 notes Pg.2 Panic attack Abrupt surge of intense fear or discomfort that peaks within minutes, and during which time four (or more) of the following occur: 1. Palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate 2. Sweating 3. Trembling 4. Shortness or breath 5. Feelings of choking 6. Chest pain or discomfort 7. Nausea 8. Feeling dizzy, lightheaded, or faint 9. Chills or heat sensations 10. Numbness or tingling sensations 11. Derealization 12. Fear of losing control 13. Fear of dying Agoraphobia: dsm5 criteria • Disproportionate and marked fear of anxiety about at least 2 situations where it would be difficult to escape or receive help in the event of incapacitation, embarrassing symptoms, or paniclike symptoms • Might include: • Being outside of the home alone • Traveling on public transportation • Being in open spaces • Being in enclosed spaces • Standing in line or being in a crowd • These situations consistently provoke fear or anxiety • These situations are avoided, require the presence of a companion, or are endured with intense fear or anxiety Generalized anxiety disorder: dsm5 criteria Week 5 notes Pg.3 • Excessive anxiety and worry at least 50% of days about a number of events or activities (e.g., family, health, finances, work, and school) • The person finds it hard to control the worry • The anxiety and worry are associated with at least 3 of the following: • Restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge • Easily fatigued • Difficulty concentrating or mind going blank • Irritability • Muscle tension • Sleep disturbance Contributing factors risk & etiology Gender Women: • More vulnerable to anxiety disorders • More likely to report symptoms • Experience different life circumstances • More biological reactivity to stress Men: • More social pressure to face their fears • Believe more in personal control over situations Culture • Kayakangst • Taijin kyofusho • Koro • Susto Fear conditioning • Mowrer’s twofactor theory: • Classical conditioning Week 5 notes Pg.4 • Operant conditioning • Extensions of Mowrer’s original model Neurobiology • Fear circuit • Amygdala • Medial prefrontal cortex • Pathway may be deficient in those with anxiety disorders • Neurotransmitters • Serotonin • GABA • Norepinephrine Personality • Behavioral inhibition • Infancy • May set stage for later development of anxiety • Predictor of social anxiety • Neuroticism • Experience frequent or intense negative affect Cognitive • Sustained negative beliefs about the future • Safety behaviors • Perceived lack of control • Attention to threat E tiology Specific Phobias • Little Albert • Are phobias conditioned? Week 5 notes Pg.5 • Prepared learning • Evolution • Learn to react to stimuli that are lifethreatening Social Anxiety Disorder • Behavioral factors • Classically conditioned to fear similar situations • Operant conditioning reinforces behavior • Cognitive factors • Unrealistically negative beliefs • Overly negative in evaluating performance in social situations • Attend more to internal cues Panic Disorder • Neurobiological factors • Locus coeruleus • Behavioral factors: Classical Conditioning • Cognitive factors in panic disorder • Anxiety sensitivity index • Genetics Agoraphobia • Fearoffear hypothesis • Negative thoughts about consequences of experiencing anxiety in public Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Tendency to experience general distress more than intense fear • Cognitive factors • Worry can be reinforcing • History of trauma • Find it hard to understand and label feelings Treatment of anxiety disorders Week 5 notes Pg.6 Exposure Therapy • Include as many features of feared object as possible • Conducted in as many contexts as possible CBT • Challenge: • Beliefs about negative outcomes • Expectations about not being able to cope Extinction • Form of learning • Mindfulness Psychological treatments • Phobias In vivo exposure • SAD Role plays, social skills training, ceasing safety behaviors • Panic Disorder Panic control therapy (PCT), cognitive treatment, psychodynamic treatment • Agoraphobia Systematic exposure • GAD Relaxation training M edications • Anxiolytics • Benzodiazepines (BZs) • SNRIs • Tends to be preferred over BZs • Dcycloserine (DCS) • Enhances learning • Can enhance the effectiveness of exposure
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