Week 5 (September 18-23) - Sex Roles
Week 5 (September 18-23) - Sex Roles ANT3302
Popular in Sex Roles a Cross-Cultural Perspective
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT3302 at University of Florida taught by Amber Grafft-Weiss in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Sex Roles a Cross-Cultural Perspective in Anthropology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Monday, September 19, 2016 Outside the Binary Sex & gender on a Spectrum Following Up and Looking Ahead Queer: o Umbrella term used to suggest non-straight sexual orientation or non-CIS gender identity or expression o Transgressive, revolutionary, anti-assimilation, challenging of the status quo Heteronormativity: o Assumption that all people are heterosexual, or that heterosexuality is the default (or normal) state of being New Social Science Approaches Sexual orientation: o Combination of sexual attractions, behaviors, thoughts, feelings, fantasies & one’s interpretation of them. Sexual identity: o Label an individual attach to themselves to indicate their sexual orientation to themselves and others Stage-model approach for sexual identity formation: o 1: Experiences provide personal “evidence” for appropriateness of gay identity o 2: Development of identity complicated by internalized heteronormative ideology o 3: Individual establishes a well-adjusted gay identity Sexual landscape o The biographical interpersonal, social, cultural, political and historical context through which individuals travel, and in which they negotiate their sexual orientation and shape their sexual identity o The landscape itself, as well as one’s location on it can change o Has same basic characteristics for everyone, but looks different to each individual (e.g. some landmarks stand out more to some than others o Individual interpretation of changes to landscape are critical to orientation/identity constructions Let’s Chat: Linguistic Anthropology & RPDR Uses Speech-Codes Theory to explore how “particular communication (de)constitutes collective drag queen group identity…” Discovered “culturally specific codes” indicating appropriate conduct/attitudes for RPDR winner, as well as “what it means to speak, and act, like a drag queen” Alternative Genders Around the World Hijras o Neither man nor women o Third gender, after ritual process, where they remove your genitals o Mother Goddess Dual nature that is symbolic o Adopt women’s presentation o But don’t want to make an imitation of womenDon’t want to pass o You abandon your family o Ritual performative roles (bless child or couple)They’re way of living o Prostitution o Social structure: Members of a house, not a building, but subgroup Lineages with common ancestors specific to each house Medical Resources in India 3 Big Ideas: o No national standards regarding medical treatment options for transgender people or hijras o Electing medical gender reassignment surgery may produce consequences within hijra community o Limited access to medical needs leads to use of traditional surgical methods that might otherwise not be selected, or unregulated use of hormone therapy. Public hospitals cannot provide much support; private hospitals are prohibitively expensive. Alternative Genders Around the World Native American Two-Spirit: o People who partly or completely take on aspects of the culturally defined role of the other sex; these people are classified as their own genders o Includes Navajo nádleeh, Mojave alyha and hwame Adopts female dress and physiology They undergo a ceremony Industrious and better husbands than women They mimic menstruation and pregnancy It is not a direct predictor of sexual orientation 3 Big Ideas o available historic documentation less than reliable due to ethnocentrism, particularly the kind that imposes gender binaries and involves homophobia/transphobia o No universal treatment/role for two-spirit people—cultural variation o Specific information regarding two-spirit within any given culture is sparse Wednesday, September 21, 2016 Labor & Gender Culture Engenders Work Ideas about “women’s work” & “a man’s job” are shaped culturally and historically “We engendered the idea of secretary” The economical basis of inequality is what creates engendering jobs Marxism & the Gendered of Economy Basics of Marxist Theory Evolutionist underpinnings o Primitive communism o Ancient (slave) move o Feudalism o Capitalism o Socialism o Communism Means of Production: o Facilities and resources used for making goods (e.g. tool factories, raw materials, labor) Relations of Production: o Social relationships people must enter into to survive and produce/reproduce their means of life The people that have this means is called bourgeoisie Mode of Production: o A society’s combined level of technological development combined with the overall organization of its economy, including division of labor o Means + Relations “Capitalism is a set of social relations- forms of property, and so forth- in which production takes the form of turning money, things and people into capital” Superstructure: Dominant ideology of a society. Includes all that “men say, imagine, conceive…” including “politics, laws, morality, religion, etc” Engels & the Gender of Economy Wealth productionPrivate Property OwnershipMen gain clout w/in familyPatrilineality & patriarchy Problems with Engels o Matrilineal descent: A unilineal system that traces kinship through the mother’s side rather than the father’s But he wasn’t entirely wrong///benefits of matrilineality o Great control over property o Greater domestic authority o Higher value placed on lives Foraging & Egalitarianism Dobe Ju/’hoansi, Kalahari Desert Most food provided by (women’s) foraging o Not a lot of division of labor, or property o Women spend more time in housework (but men do too) o Sexual abuse is really rare Cultures are dynamic Pastoralism & Horticulture Yanomamo o Men tend to have more status than women o Women are only concerned with domestic chores o A lot of warfare (not women’s) Agricultural societies Inca o More stratification o Degrees of inequalities o Peasant Inca Women: Farming Herding Weaving Food prep Child care o Peasant Inca men: Farming Herding o Inca Elites Polygyny possible Women’s chastity important Young girls confiscated form villages No divorce between husband & 1 wifest Widows could only remarry husband’s brother Warrior-like image of manhood o Inca Peasants Premarital sex okay Divorce allowed Trial marriages
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