GEO 101 Week 4 notes
GEO 101 Week 4 notes GEO 101LEC
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anisha Karim on Friday September 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Bennett, S J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
GEO 101 Week 4 WATER AND HYDROSPHERE ● Three states of water are gas(water vapor), liquid(water), and solid(ice) ● Latent heat is transferred when water changes states. This is the energy released and absorbed when it changes state. ● Evaporation, freezing, condensation, melting, sublimation, deposition ○ Sublimation: state change from solid to gas ○ Deposition: state change from gas to solid Hydrosphere ● 97.5% of all water is salt water ● The remaining 2.5% is freshwater ○ 30% of this is groundwater and 0.4% is surface water Hydrologic cycle ● Water moves among the ocean, atmosphere, and land by ○ Evaporation, precipitation, transpiration, evapotranspiration, and runoff which sinks into the soil and recharges the groundwater Humidity ● WARM AIR HOLDS MORE WATER← important lol ● Basically this is the amount of water vapor in the air ● Max volume of water vapor (or humidity) of an air mass increases with rising temperature. ○ Air temperature at 20 degrees Celsius hold 3 times more water than at freezing ○ Low humidity in California and high heat can be a comfortable date while the same temperature at a high humidity in Florida can be unbearably hot ● Relative Humidity (RH) ○ Compares amount of water vapor present to max amount air can hold at that temperature in percentage ■ Air holding ½ of its maximum capacity is at 50% relative humidity ○ Changes in gain or loss of moisture or change in temperature ○ Ex: 40 degrees F= 16g/60g (amount of water that can be held at atmosphere at 40 degrees) = 0.26 → 26% RH ● Dew point ○ Temperature at which air with a given humidity will reach saturation when cooled without changing pressure ● Specific Humidity ○ Actual amount of water vapor in the ir (g/kg) ○ When air cools the capacity reduces and vice versa ○ This is high at low latitudes (higher temperatures) and low at high latitudes Adiabatic Processes ● As air is lifter, atmospheric pressure is lowered→ parcels expand and cool ● As air cools to dew point, clouds form ● Air descends → its compressed and warmed ● Adiabatic processes= process where the temperature of a parcel of air changes in response to change in atmospheric pressure ● Dry adiabatic lapse rate ○ Rate at which rising air cools or descending air warms when no condensation is occurring ■ Cools quickly until it is saturated→ condensation occurs and clouds form→ cools slower ■ Cools at 10 degrees Celsius/ 1000 m ● Moist Adiabatic Lapse Rate ○ Rate at which rising air cools by expansion when condensation is occurring ■ 4 degrees to 9 degrees Celsius /1000 m Clouds and Fog ● Clouds consist of water droplets, ice crystals, or both ● Classified by height: high clouds, middle clouds, low clouds, clouds of vertical development ● Cloud types ○ Cirrus ○ Cirriform: At the top of the stratosphere ○ Stratiform: Blanket life clouds covering large areas ○ Cumuliform: small to large parcels of air ○ Cumulonimbus: tall clouds creating precipitation ● Fog ○ Radiation fog: When ground level air temperature falls below dew point ○ Advection fog: When warm moist air moves over cold surface ■ Common over oceans(sea fog), west coast of US and Canada ● Precipitation ○ Rain, snow, hail, ice ○ Annual precipitation rates around the world vary ○ Forms in clouds by two different processes ■ Warm clouds: collision coalescence ■ Cold clouds: ice crystal process ● These clouds produce snowflakes ○ Hail is produced during strong updrafts in thunderstorms ● Atmospheric Lifting ○ Air moves up in four ways ■ Orographic: up mountains, the odry side is called leeward ■ Convergent: two air masses converge and form an uplift ■ Convective precipitation: induced when warm moist air is heated on the ground, rises,cools, and condenses ■ Frontal lifting: warm air rises over cold air because cold air is more dense Human Impacts ● Acid rain : also called acid deposition ○ Raindrops that have been chemically acidified by industrial air pollutants like sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide ○ Lower the PH, the more acidic the liquid ○ Texas and LA have more acid rain because of oil and gas industries ○ Effects aquatic life and does damage to forests, soil and buildings
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